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27 Cards in this Set

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metabolism
controlled biochem rxns
function:repduce organism
reproduction requires work which requires energy.
energy is capacity to do work
G=free energy, released to do useful work
Free energy
pH 7 and initial [] of all reactants at 1M
delta G fromation of compounds
A + B-->C + D....G(o)
G(o)f[C + D] - G(o)f[A + B] where G(o)f is the free energy of formation of a compound free from its elements
delta G with biological compounds
glucose -917.3
CO2 -394.4
acetate -369.4
water -237.2
enzymes
metabolic rxns are spontaneous
enzymes are organic catalysts
heme has prosthetic group
apoenzyme:enzyme proteins that function with coenzymes(vit,NAD,FAD) are intermediate carrier reactants and loosely bound.
[entire complex is holoenzyme]
components of enzymes
cofactor:Fe,Mg,Zn,Cu
active site
coenzyme
prosthetic group
apoenzyme
enzyme activity
substrate binds and induces change, interaction bw substrate and chemical groups, activates for chem rxn.
enzymes and Ea
enzymes lower Ea
catalytic cycle of enzymes
fructose 1,6 biphosphate aldolase
the substrate is that
enzyme changes conformation and puts strain on substrate
pdts:glyceraldhyde,dihydroxyactetone
categories of enzymes, with mode of action
hydro:hydrolytic rxns
isomer:rearrange molecules
polymer/lig:link subunits or macromolecules
ly:link molecules, no polymer
oxidoreduct:redox
transfer:transfers groups
redox rxns
reduction:add e-
oxidation:remove e-
e-'s cant exist alone in soln
for every ox is a reduct
redox couples
oxidation(H2 gas),release e-
H2-->2e- + 2H
reduction(oxidation of H2)
is coupled to the reduction of many diff compounds
reduction potentials
vary in redox potentials
E(o)':reduction potential
measured electricaly and expressed in volts, expressed in 1/2 rxns written as reduction rxns.
1/2O2 +2H +2e- -->H2O
E(O)'=+.816
2H + 2e- --->H2
E(o)'=-.421
redox couples (refer to previous rxns)
the oxidized form is always placed on the left.
arranged from strongest reductants(-E(o)') to the strongest oxidants (+E(o)') in the so called e- tower
electron tower
E(o)'(-.5)----->(+.9)

+.9 has MORE neg delta G than -.5!!!
the electron tower
1.oxygen at the bottom the most favorable electron acceptor
2.middle:acceptor or donor (most are anaerobic)
*anoxic conditions and in the presence of H2, fumarate can be a donor.Presence of NO3 succinate can be donor
redox electron carriers
catabolism:donor is called an energy source(glu,H2S,succ)
initial e- donor is the primary and final acceptor is the terminal e- acceptor.
electron carriers into 2 classes
freely diffusible:NAD, NADP

firmly attached to mem proteins:FMN,FAD,heme
soluable electron carriers
2 e- and 1 proton accepted, the proton is diffusible.

reduced forms are indicated simply as NADH and NADPH
NAD cycling
1.enzyme with substrate(donor) and is oxidized to NAD
2.enzyme with substrate(acceptor) and reduced to NADH
NAD/NADH
involved directly in energy-generating (catabolic) rxns
NADP/NADPH
primarily involved in the biosynthetic(anabolic) rxns
conservation of energy released by redox rxns
1.energy released is conserved for immediate use mainly as high energy phosphate bonds.
2.ATP is present in relatively low []'s and is cleaved to ADP +Pi to drive endergonic rxns. Re-synthesized from ADP + Pi with energy gained from redox rxns.
high energy compounds
phophoenolpyruvate -51.6
1,3 biphosphoglycerate -52
ATP -31.8
ADP -31.8
low energy compounds
AMP -14.2
glucose 6-phosphate -13.8
long term energy storage
ATP and other low mw, high energy compounds, broken for anabolic rxns, regenerated for catabolic.
energy storage compounds
1.starch/glycogen
2.polyhydroxyl alkanoates
3.elemental S:chemolithotrophs