Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/36

Click to flip

36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
animal hosts
favorable environments for grwoth of microorganisms where most dont harm
normal microbial flora
mutualists and commensals, live on hosts(humans) w/o causing problems and provide host with benefits(vits)
parasites
pathogens
take from host w/o giving back

microbial parasites
pathogenicity and pathogens

opportunistic pathogen
infection to the host by pathogens can lead to disease. pathogenicity is ability to cause disease.

cause disease only in absence of normal host resistance
mucous membrane
coated with protective layer of viscous soluable glycoproteins (mucus) and are the common site of microbial attachment/infection.
skin as host
harsh enviro, most dont grow
skin flora:transient and resident populations
resident(gram +) live near apocrine(moist) or sebaceous(nutrient) glands
oral cavity
variety of nutrients,lysosyme and lactoperoxidase inhibit cell growth. glycoproteins from saliva provide stickiness for attachment.
biofilm of oral cavity
aka dental plaque, is colonized by other bacteria.
lower layers of it become anoxic allowing growth of anaerobes like actinomyces.
stages of biofilm formation
attachment:cells to solid surface
colonization:intercellular communication,polysac form
development:extensive growth
plaque growth
leads to pdtion of organic acids and tooth damage.
S.mutans doesn't need glycoproteins for adhesion bc makes its own dextran
abdominal physiological processes and amt of bacteria
stomach:secretion of HCl,digestion of macro's (few,pH 2)
SI:abs monosac,aa,FA,H2O (10e6-10e7,pH 4-5)
LI:abs of bile acids,vit B12 (10e10-10e11,pH 7)
biochemical/metabolic contributions of intestinal microo
vit synthesis:B12,K,thiamine
gas pdtion:CO2,CH4,H2
odor pdtion:H2S,NH3,acid
organic acid pdtion:acetic,propionic,butyric acids
glycosidase rxns:beta-glucuronidase...other betas
steroid metab:esterification,dehydroxylation,oxidation,inversion
respiratory tract
upper:(naso,oral,throat)many bacteria
lower:(trachea,lungs)no resident bacteria
healthy carriers harbor pathogenic, resident flora limit pathogen by competing for resources.
bladder and reproductive organs
healthy bladder is sterile but urethra colonized by facultative anaerobes.
vagina is host to complex community (age dependent).
normal flora regulate pathogens
microbes...most dont "want" to kill
exposure:to pathogen
adherence:to skin, mucosa
invasion:thru epithelium
colonize/growth:toxicity(local) and invasive(systemic)
tissue damage/disease
parasites relative ability to cause disease (virulence)
highly:streptococcus pneumonia
moderately:salmonella typimurium
virulence determined by toxicity and invasiveness
attenuated:inable to cause disease
virulence factors aid in adherence to specific host epithelial tissues ie...
pili
slime layers and capsules
may protect cells from host immune system
major adherence factors to facilitate attachment to host
slime/capsule:e.coli,mutans
adhere protein:pyogenes,gonorrhoeae
lipoteichoic acid:pyogenes
fimbriae(pili):neisseria gonorrhoeae,salmonella,e.coli
enzymes; other virulence factors
hyaluronidase,collagenase:breakdown intracellular streptokinase:dissolves clots
nutrient whores:protease,nuclease,lipase,siderophores,TR
bacterial toxicity from 2 types of toxins
endo:intrinsic to bacteria mem
exo:potent,released by cell.
1.cytolitic
2.A-B toxins:botulism
3.super-Ag toxins
cytolytic toxins
(aka hemolysins)
kill host cell, not all are specific
hemolysins:dissolve mem lipids to lyse or sterols
A-B toxins
two subunits
one binds the cell receptors
other affects the cell
botulism toxin
most potent biological, results in flaccid paralysis
tetanus toxin
opp of botulism, results in rigid paralysis
enterotoxins
exotoxins that specifically target the SI and have 3 different types
endotoxins
part of the outer membrane of gram -(lipid A of LPA) and are less toxic than exotoxins
salmonella
variety of virulence traits:
entero,sidero,endo,O-Ag,cyto,capsule
carriers
hosts of pathogens that dont have the disease
influences of infection
age,stress,diet,health,genes

compromised hosts are at additional danger for infections caused by opportunistic pathogens(noscimial infections)
anatomical defenses
skin
rapid pH change
flushing urinary tract
nasopharynx
mucus in trachea
blood proteins
mucus/phagocytes in lungs
stomach acidity
parasites relative ability to cause disease (virulence)
highly:streptococcus pneumonia
moderately:salmonella typimurium
virulence determined by toxicity and invasiveness
attenuated:inable to cause disease
virulence factors aid in adherence to specific host epithelial tissues ie...
pili
slime layers and capsules
may protect cells from host immune system
major adherence factors to facilitate attachment to host
slime/capsule:e.coli,mutans
adhere protein:pyogenes,gonorrhoeae
lipoteichoic acid:pyogenes
fimbriae(pili):neisseria gonorrhoeae,salmonella,e.coli
enzymes; other virulence factors
hyaluronidase,collagenase:breakdown intracellular streptokinase:dissolves clots
nutrient whores:protease,nuclease,lipase,siderophores,TR
bacterial toxicity from 2 types of toxins
endo:intrinsic to bacteria mem
exo:potent,released by cell.
1.cytolitic
2.A-B toxins:botulism
3.super-Ag toxins
specificity in infectious disease
[disease,tissue infected,organism]
AIDS,T-helper,HIV
botulism,motor end plate
cholera,SI
dental,oral epi,mutans
diptheria,throat epi
gonorrhea,urogenital
malaria,blood(erythro)
pyclonephritis,kidney,proteus
spontaneous abortion,placenta
tetanus,inhibitory interneuron