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12 Cards in this Set

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What do fixed and wandering macrophages do?
Fixed: remain resident in certain tissues (liver, lungs, nervous system, spleen, lymph nodes)
Wandering: roam tissues and gather at sites of infection or inflammation
What is the role of TLRs in phagocytosis?
They bind to the peptidoglycan in the cell wall of microbes/other particles
How does each of these bacteria avoid destruction by phagocytes? Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rickettsia
(See Photo)
What purposes does inflammation serve?
-Destroy injurious agents
-Limit its effects on the body through confinement
-Repair damaged tissues
What causes the redness, swelling, and pain associated with inflammation?
Vasodilation, Increased permeability, pressure from edema
What is complement?
Defensive system consisting of over 30 proteins produced by the liver and circulating in blood and within body tissues
List the steps of complementation activation via (1) the classical pathway, (2) the alternative pathway, and (3) the lectin pathway.
C1->C2 and C4->C2a/b and C4a/b->C2a and C4b activate C3->C3a/b
C3 + factors B/D/P->C3a/b
Lecin binds microbe->C2 and C4 split->C2a/b and C4a/b->C2a and C4b activate C3-> C3a/b
Summarize the major outcomes of complement activation.
Opsonization: enhancement of phagocytosis (caoting w/C3b)
Inflammation: increase blood vessel permeability and chemotactic attraction of phagocytes
What is interferon?
Cytokines; class of similar antiviral proteins produced by certain animal cells after viral stimulation; interfere with viral multiplication
Why do IFN-α and IFN-β share the same receptor on target cells, yet IFN-y has a different receptor?
α and β cause cells to produce antiviral proteins, inhibiting viral replication
y: cause neutrophils/macrophages to phagocytize bacteria
What is the role of siderophores in infection?
iron competing proteins secreted by bacteria
Why are scientists interested in AMPs?
Broad spectrum activity; have shown synergy (work together) with other antimicrobial agents