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143 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are microbes
very small organisms that usually require a microscope to be seen/not seen with unaided eyes
what are microbes also called
what does the microbe group include
bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and microscopic algae, viruses
the majority of microorganisms make crucial contributions to the welfare of the world's inhabitants by
helping to maintain the balance of living organisms and chemicals in our environment
certain microbes play important roles in
what is photosynthesis
a food and oxygen generating process that is critical to life on Earth
humans and many other animals depend onthe microbes in their ______ for digestion and the _________ of some vitamins that their body requires
intestines, synthesis
B vitamins are for
vitamin K is for
blood clotting
microorganisms also have many commercial _______
who discovered the process by which microbes produce acetone and butanol in 1914
Chaim Weizmann
what is Weizmanns history
Russian born chemist working in England
How did Weizmann's discovery play a significant role in determining the outcome of world war I
acetone was very important for making cordite-a smokeless form of gunpowder used in munitions
microbes are used in the synthesis of chemical products such as
aceton, organic acids, enzymes, alcohols, and many drugs
the food industry uses microbes in producing
vinegar, sauerkraut, pickles, alcoholic beverages, green olives, soy sauce, buttermilk, cheese, yogurt, and bread
enzymes from micrboes can now be manipulated such that the microbes produce substances they normally ________

what are examples of these substances
do not synthesize

cellulose, digestive acids, drain cleaner, iportant therapeutic substances such as insulin
Though only a minority of microorganisms are ________, practical knowledge of microbes is necessary for medicine and the related health sciences.


hospital workers must be able to protect patients from common microbes that are normally harmless but pose a threat to the sick and injured
what does pathogenic mean
disease producing
why did so many people die long ago
devastating epidemics,
vaccinations and antibiotics were not available
who established the system of nomenclature for organisms in 1735
Carolus Linnaeus
why are scientific names latinized
because Latin was the language traditionally used by scholars
what is the genus
the first name and is always capitalized
what is the specific epithet
the species name and is not capitalized
the organism is referred to by both the genus and the specific epithet and both names are
underlined and italicized
after a scientific name has been mentioned once, it can be abbreviated by
abbreviate the inital of the genus followed by the specific epithet
what can scientific names do
describe an organism
honor a researcher
identify the habitat of a species
where is staphylococcus aureus commonly found
on human skin
what does staphylo mean
clustered arrangement of the cells
waht does coccus indicate
they are shaped like spheres
what does the specific epithet, aureus, mean
Latin for golden, the color of many colonies of this bacterium
what is the genus of the bacterium escherichia coli
for a scientist, Theodor Escherih

how did sourdough bread get it's name
during the gold rush, miners baked so many sour loaves that they were nicknamed sourdough
what kingdom does yeast belong to
what is the process of when the yeast metabolizes the sugars and produces alcohol (ethanol) and carbon dioxide as waste products
the most famous sourdough bread comes from
San Francisco
sourdough bread is ___ times more acidic than conventional bread because of the ...
presence of lactic and acetic acids
what is bacteria
relatively simple, single-celled(unicellular) organisms
why are bacterial cells called prokaryotes
because their enetic material is not enclosed in a special nuclear membrane
prokaryotes include both the _____ and the _____
bacteria & archaea
what are the most common shapes that bacterial cells appear in
some bacteria are __________ shaped
star or square
individual bacteria may form
pairs, chains, clusters or other groupings
bacteria are enclosed in cell walls tat are
largely composed of peptidoglycan
what is pptidoglycan
a carbohydtrate and protein complex
how do bacteria generally reproduce
binary fission
wat is binary fission
dividing into two equal cells
what do most bacteria use for nutrition
organic chemicals, can be derived from either dead or livig organisms in naure
many macteria can "swim" by using moing appendages called
archaea consists of prokaryotic cells, but if they have cell walls then
the walls lack pepdioglycan
where are archaea often found in
extreme environments
what are the three groups that archaea is divided into
extreme halophiles
extreme thermophiles
what are methanogens
produce methane as a waste product from respiration
what are extreme halophiles
(salt loving)
live in extremely salty environments such as the Great Salt Lake and the Dead Sea
what are extreme thermophiles
live in hot sulfurous water such as hot springs at Yellowstone National Park
archaea are not known to cause ______ in humans
are fungi prokaryotes or eukaryotes
what is fungi
organisms whose cells have a distinct nucleus containing the cell's genetic material (DNA), surrounded by a special envoleope called the nuclear membrane
organisms in the Kingdom Fungi can be unicellular or
why aren't large multicellular fungi that look like plants, plants?
they cannot carry out photosynthesis like most plants
true fungi have cell walls composed primarily of a substance called
what are yeasts
the unicellular forms of fungi
oval microorganisms that are larger than bacteria
what is the most typical fungi
molds form visible masses called
what is mycelia composed of
long filaments that branch and intertwine
what are long filaments
fungi can reproduce
asexually or sexually
fungi obtain nourishment by
absorbing solutions of organic material from their environment-whether soil, seawater, fresh water, or an animal or plant host
what are slime molds
have characteristics of both fungi and amoebas
protozoa are unicellular or multicellular

prokaryotic or eukaryotic microbes
eukaryotic microbes
how do protozoa move
by pseudopods, flagella or cilia
how do amoebas move
by using extensions of their cytoplasm called pseudopods
what are pseudopods
false feet
what are cilia
numerous shorter appendages for locomotion
protozoa have a variety of shapes and live either as free
entities or as parasitesthat absorb or ingest organic compounds from their environment
what are parasites
organisms that derive nutrients from living hosts
protozoa can reproduce
sexually or asexually
what are algae
photosynthetic eukaryotes with a wide variety of shapes and both sexual and asexual reproductive forms
the algae of interest to microbiologists are usually
what are the cell walls of many algae composed of
a carbohydrate called cellulose
algae are ____ in fresh and salt water, in soil, and in association with plants
what do algae need for food production and growth
light, water, and carbon dioxide

don't generally require organic compounds from the environment
what does algae produce as a result of photosynthesis
oxygen and carbohydrates that are then utilized by other organisms
most viruses can be seen only with
an electron microscope
viruses are unicelular?
no, acellular
what does acellular mean
not cellular
what does a virus particle contain
a core made ofonly one type of nucleic acid, ether DNA or RNA
what is the core of a virus surrounded by
a protein coat
sometimes the coat of a virus is encased by an additional layer
a lipid membrane called the envelope
viruses can reproduce only by
using the cellular machinery of oter organisms
viruses are considered to be living
when they multipoly within host cells they infect, so viruses are parasites of other forms of life
viruses are not considered to be living because
outside of living hosts they are inert
what are the two groups of parasitic worms
what are roundworms collectively called
before the existence of microbes was known, all organisms were grouped into either the _______ or _________ kingdom
animal or plant
what are the three domains of Carl Woese's system of classification
1. Bacteria (cell wals contain a protein carbohydtrate complex called peptidoglycan)
2. Archaea (cell walls, if present, lack peptidolycan)
3. Eukarya:
-Protists (slime molds, protozoa, and algae)
-Fungi(unicellular yeasts, multicellular molds, and mushrooms)
-Plants(includes mosses, ferns, conifers, and flowering plants)
-Animals(sponges, worms, insects, and vertebrates)
what is the cell theory
the theory that all living things are composed of cells
what did Hooke lack even though his icrocope was capable of showing cells
staining techniques
who was the first to observe live microorganisms through the magnifying lenses of morethan 400 microcopes he constructed
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
spontaneous generation
many scientists and philosophers beleived that some forms of life could arise spontaneously from nonliving matter
What did John Needham find
even after he heated nutrient fluids before pouring them into covered flasks, the cooled solutions were soon teeming with microorganisms
what did needham claim
that microbes developed spontaneously from the fluids
what did Lazzaro Spallanzani suggest 20 years later
microorganisms from the air proably had entered Needham's solutions after they were boiled
what did Spallanzani show
that nutrient fluids heated after being sealed in a flask did not develop microbial growth
how did Needham claim by responding to Spallanzani
by claiming the "vital force" necessary for spontaneous generation had been destroyed by te heat and was kept out of the flasks by the seals
when was the intangibe "vital force" given all the more credence after Spallanzani's experiment
when Anton Laurent Lavoisier showed the importance of oxygen to life
Spallanzani's observations were crticized on the grounds that there was not enough oxygen in the sealed flasks to support
microbial life
who challenged the concept of biogenesis
Rudolf Virchow
what is biogenesis
the claim that living cells can arise only frm preexisting living cells
who resolved the issue on spontaneous generation
Louis Pasteur, french scientist
what did Pasteur demonstrate
that microorganisms are present in the air and can contaminate sterile solutions
what did pasteur do to prove his point
-filled several short-necked flasks with beef broth and then boiled their contents
-some were left open and allowed to cool
-in a few days, the flasks were found to be contaminated with microbes
what did Pasteur reason from his results
that microbes in the air were the agents responsible for conaminating nonliving matter such as the broths in Needham's flasks
what did Pasteur do next
-he placed broth in open-ended long-necked flasks and ent the necks into S-shaped curves
-contents of the flask were boiled and cooled
-broth did not decy and showed no signs of life even after months
Pasteur's unique design allowed air to pass into the flask, but the curved neck
trapped any airborne microorganisms that might conaminate the broth
Pasteur showed that microorganisms can be present in nonloving matters on -
on solids, in liquids, and in the air
what did pasteur furthermore demonstrate
that microbial life can be destroyed by heat and that methods can be devised to block the access of airborne microorganisms to nutrient environments
what are aseptic techniques
techniques that prevent contamination by unwanted microorganisms, which are now the standard practice in laboratory and many medical procedures
what are among the first and most important changes that a begining microbiologist learns
modern aseptic techniques
scientists now beleive that a form of spontaneous gerenation probably did occur on the primitive Earth when life first began, but
they agree that this does not happen under today's environmental conditions
what were the years of 1857-1914 known as
the Golden Age of Microbiology
what happened during this period
the rapid advances mainly by Pasteur and Koch led to the establishment of microbiology as a science
what discoveries were made in the Golden Age of Microbiology
agents of many diseases and the role of immunity in the prevention and cure of disease
what did microbiologists study during this period
chemical activities of microorganisms, improved the techniques for performing microscopy and culturing microorganisms, and developed vaccines and surgical techniques
when did one of the key steps that established the relationship between microorganisms and disease occur
when a group of French merchants asked Pasteur to find out why wine and beer soured
what did the french merchants that asked pasteur to find out why beer and wine soured hope to develop
a method that would prevent spoilage when those verages were shipped long distances
what is fermentation
microorganisms called yeasts convert the sugars to alcohol in the absence of air
what is used to make wine and beer
who found the idea of fermentation
souring and spoilage are caused by different microorganisms called
in the presence of air, bacteria change the ______ in the beverage into _____
vinegar (acetic acid)
what is pasteurization
to heat the beer and wine just enough to kill most of the bacteria that caused the spoilage
what is pasteurization commonly used for now
to reduce spoilage and kill potentially harmful bacteria in milk as well as in some alcoholic drinks
showing the connection between ______ of food and _________ was a major step twoard establishing the relationship between disease and microbes.
what was the first link between the activity of a microorganism and physical and chemical changes in organic materials
the realizaion that yeasts play a crucial role in fermentation
germ theory of disease
microorganisms might have similar relationships with plants and animals - specifically that microorganisms might cause disease
why was the germ theory a difficult concept for many people to accept at that time
because for centuries disease was believed to be punishment for an individual's crimes or misdeeds
whose data did Pasteur use to find more recent infection caused by protozoan and to develop a method for recognizing affected silkworm moths
Agostino Bassi
who applied the germ theory to medical procedures
Joseph Lister
what did Lister treat surgical wounds with
a phenol solution
what did Lister's findings rove
that microorganisms cause surgical wound infections
where did the the first proof that bacteria actually causes disease come from
Robert Koch
what did Koch discover
rod-shaped bacteria, known as Bacillus anthracis in the blood of cattle that died of anthrax
what are koch's postulates
a sequence of experimental steps for directly relating a specific microbe to a specific disease