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36 Cards in this Set

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bacilli
rods
coccus
round
coccobacilli
oval
vibrios
curved in shape
spirilla
spring like
bacterial grouping
arrangement of grouping
bacterial morphology
bacterial shape; actual shape of bacteria
AUTOTROPHS
microbs that obtain their carbon from CO2
HETEROTROPHS
microbs that obtain their carbon from other organic molecules; like sugar, proteins and fats. (hetero = same, think they get it from others).
PHOTOTROPHS
get their energy from light
CHEMOTROPHS
energy from other chemicals
PSYCHROPHILES
COLD LOVING
-5 to 15 C
MESOPHILES
25 to 45 C
humans at 37 C
THERMOPHILES
50 to 60 C
EXTREME (HYPER) THERMOPHILES
70 to 115
hot springs at Yellowstone
THERMODURING ORGANISM
mesophiles; that can withstand higher temps for short periods of time. FOOD POISENING ISSUES.
ACIDOPHILES
1 --> 5 pH
Obligate Acidophiles can not survive in what pH.?
above 7.0 pH
NEUTROPHILES
5.5 --> 8 pH
ALKALIPHILES
7.5 --> 12 pH
HALOPHILES
salt loving microbs
most bacteria like what % of salt?
2%
PLASMOLYSIS
membrane breaks; bacterial cells collapse, drawing plasma membrane out from wall, shinking will occure.
other nutrients of microbes?
Nitrogen, Sulfer
OBLIGATE AEROBES
must use O2 in final e- transport chain
OBLIGATE ANAEROBES
will die in O2
MICROAEROPHILES
require O2, but not 100% (only 2 to 10%)
FACULTATIVE ANAEROBES
can maintain life aerobicly or via fermintation; metabolic efficenty is reduced if via fermintation
AEROTOLERANT ANAEROBES
do not use O2; but can tolarate O2 enviroment
ENRICHMENT CULTURE
one grown on a medium, usually liquid, that has been supplemented to encourage the growth of a given type of organism.
GENERATION TIME
The time required for a given population to double in size. This time can be as short as 20 minutes or as long as a week.
Phases of Growth
Lag phase: do not reproduce but actively senthisize enzymes
Log Phase: population increases rapidly
Stationary Phase: numbers of dying cells equal number of cells being produced
Death Phase: nutrients are not being added and waste not being removed
three types of counting techniques:
plate count: counting colonies per plate good plate is 30 to 300 colonies
Direct microscopic count: counting on a grid from a slide
turbidity: measuring the cloudyness to measure density of microbes in a broth
disadvantage of plate count method?
medium must support growth for all organisms in sample: assumes a homogenous dilution
disadvantage of direct microscopic count?
motile bacteria are difficult to count. dead cells will be counted
disadvantage of turbidity
dead cells are counted. does not work for small numbers of cells