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160 Cards in this Set

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What are the original two kingdoms
animalia and planta
was organized and compiled by Carl Linnaeus
Who is Carl Linnaeus
He is the Father of Taxonomy
from 1734 to 1758
Who proposed the Three Kingdom system
Protista Animalia Plantae Earnst H haeckel
he included all microorganisms regardless of size and shape
He proposed the 4 kingdom system
Who is Herbert F Copeland
this was in 1927 adding the Monera system
RH Whittaker Proposed the
final change to include the Five Kingdom system
What is the Fungi system originally consisted of
non photosynthetic organisms
absorbed organic nutrients from the environment like bacteria
What else do fungi do that separate them from the plants
they are heterotrophs
OXYGENIC PHOTSYTNTHESIS
process by which 3 kingdoms carry out
Planta Protista and Monera
Animalia
Animal
Linnaeus
Plants
Plants
Linnaeus
Fungi
Mushrooms Yeast and Molds
Whittaker
Yeast and Molds are Microscopic
Protista
Seaweed Algae and Protozoa
Monera
Bacteria CyanoBacteria or Blue Green Algae
currently also include the archaeabacteria
Oxygenic Photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H20----->Glucose and 6O2
Viruses were originally included in the Kingdom Monera But now
They are not because they are not living entities
Fungi and Protists are Eukaryotes
Monera is a Prokaryotes
Living world includes
Animals Plants and Protists
protists
(heterogeneous) group of microorganisms
are split into ......
higher protists and lower protists depending on their level of evolution
Higher level evolved cells include
Protozoa fungi and algae
lower protists include
Blue Green Algae
Bacteria
Bacteria like Rickettsia
Chamydia
Mycoplasma
Actinomycetes
Differences Between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes are smaller and older
Prokaryotes are like
bacteria or Eubacteria
Archaebacteria
and Cyanobactera

Eukaryotes are like
Protozoa
Fungi
Algae
Process of endosymbiosis includes which 2 organelles
Chloroplasts and Mitochondria
Bacteriology is
the study of bacteria
mycology is
the study of fungi yeasts and molds
Mushrooms are included in the study of
mycology as well as actinomycetes
Phycology is also knosn as
algology the study of eukaryotic algae
also cynobacteria or the blue green algae
virology
is the study of viruses and phages
Why is rickettsia and Chlamydia included in the viruses
because they need living host cells for infection and reproduction
Ricketssisa area a group of
clinically similar diseases caused by closely related ricketssia
transmitted by hard ticks which are widely distributed throughout the world
ricketssia are
obligate intracellular parasites like virusus yet are cellular in nature and divide by binary fission
are commonly associated and found intracellularly in incests
ricketssia cause diseases like
Typhus
rockymountain spotted fever and
Q fever
chlamydia
another subclass of small obligate intracellular parasites like viruses
chlamydiae were once classified as
large viruses but were found to be a cellular entity of energy parasites that could not synthesize high energy compounds
LVPT
Lymphogranuloma Venerum PSittacosis and Tracoma
PARROT FEVER
Bacteria
free living
unicellular
reporduce by binary fission or cloning or budding
Bacillus
rod shaped cells or bacillus
vibrios
comma shapped curved rods
form of bacteria
shpericall shaped
cocci or coccus singular
many varieties of cocci
micro
diplo
strepto
staphylo
spirrilum
spiral shaped forms or spirochaetes
protozoology
study of protozoa emphasis on non pathogenic varieties
parasitology
disease producing protozoas
plasmodial parasite
amebic dysentery
also includes multicellular parsitic organisms like worms and flukes
immunology aka
serology
immunology/serology
study of hosts resistance to infections agents or to the implant of foerign material
such as organ transplants
epidemeology
study of how infections are transmitted among a susceptive populations
the primary agencis involved in the studying
CDC and the THD in austin
chemotherapy is the study of
how chemical agents might control inhibit or kill pathogenic microorganisms in host causing infection
oncology
study of cancer
what is compound 606
the magic bullet
magic bullet creator
Paul Ehrlich intended for the "death of syphilis"
Magic bullet arenic properties?
he found a chemotherapeutic agent called salvarsan an arsenic derivative effective against syphilis
textile industry dyes were the derivative vecause the dues synthesized and manufactured for fabrics
Sulfa creator
Paul erlich
Penicillin creator
alexander fleming
KOCH aka Cock
really not that great
found ways to discover anthrax and tb
what is foamite
foamite an inanimate object that can harvest or harbor microorganisms
what is an organic compound
carbon and hydrogen are key componenets
mold and yeasts cause diseases like
athletes foot
also known as mycotic infections
do all algae carry out photosynthesis?
yes
Sapophytes grow on
dead organic matter
bacteriology is
the class of origin and bacteria which cause disease
Robert Koch
He became famous for isolating Bacillus anthracis (1877), the tuberculosis bacillus (1882) and the cholera vibrio (1883)
KOCH postulate 1
microorganism must be found in all organisms suffering from the disease, but not in healthy organisms.
gotta be somthing
KOCH postulate 2
The microorganism must be isolated from a diseased organism and grown in pure culture.
vermin can be found from the verminized
KOCH postulate 3
The cultured microorganism should cause disease when introduced into a healthy organism.
gotta do something
KOCH postulate 4
The microorganism must be reisolated from the inoculated, diseased experimental host and identified as being identical to the original specific causative agent.
can be found after the crime
Ian lewis
works at UH and one of the pioneers of the microbiological movement.
UH early 1900's
obligate intracellular parasites
viruses
require the machinery of a living cell in order to replicate themselves
ricin found to
attach rabies
immunology
study of the host resistant to infection
what is overall immunity
physical barriers
innate and acquired/adaptive
Physical barriers are like
Skin and Mucus
Innate immunity is like
macrophages
complement natural killer cells
Acquired are like
Humoral
B-cells aka antibodies
acquired adaptive
cell mediated aka T- cells
who said " We live in the age of bacteria as it was in the beginning now and ever shall be"
Stephen Jay Gould
Who is Stephen Jay gould
wrote prophet for the earth
contemporary commentator on the significance of evolution in the diversity of life as it exists today
Stephen jay gould stated that this is the age of
bacteria - bacteria have always been dominanat nvever altered in 3.5 billion yearsthis is a bacterial planet
what is the oldest known life form that currently exist
bacteria

big bang occured
13.7 million years ago
where was the oldest datable rock found
greenland and it was 3.8 billion years ago
eukaryotic cells arose from a
divergent prokaryotic lines by endosymbiotic processses that occured over an extended period that took about 2 billion years
what is the cambrian explosion
aka metazoan embryogenesis occured about 0.5 billion years ago
what is punctuated evolution
this is where the large and extensive appearance of small invertebrate marine life suddenly arose
prokaryotes include
bacteria
eubacteria
cyanobacteria
and arcaheabacteria
first life forms on earth were
microfossisls of cyanobacteria still remain
what is lateral gene transfer
chief molecular innovators are where genetic element transfer between cells
prokaryotes include different metabolic diversity such as
heteroprophic autotrophic and phtotrophic ability
the oldest known fossil are in
swaziland south africa of biological cluster
earliest signs of eukaryotic life
900million years ago in bitter springs
900 million years ago in bitter springs
this was where the eukaryotic cells division of mitosis

earliest fossilized
heirarchal scheme for classification
kingdom
phylum
class
order
family
tribe
genus
species
variant
kingdom
represents a group of related phyla or division
class
group related of related orders also parts
family
group of related tribes
tribes
group of related genera
genus
group of related species
species
the distinct kind of organism
variant
also strain or subspecies represents a group of the same species but having small differences
heirachial taxonomic schemes of the kingdom animalia
Kingdom: animalia
Phylum: vertebrata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Homonid
Genus: Homo
Species: sapiens
Variant: Dashund or greyhound
Carl Linnaeus
2 kingdom system
father of taxonomy
microbes were discovered by
Antoine Van Leeuenhoek by using his own manufactured lens having 300x power
Leeuenhoek described living microscopic creatures as
animalia and infusoria
Linnaeus could only classify some of the larger "animacules"
the rest were placed in
Chaos infusorium
what is Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bactgeriology
First accepted and widely used classification system in the usa for bacteria
16S and 18S rRNA molecues
these are the 2 subunits that prokaryotes and eukaryotes are broken down into
these Svedberg units indicate the shape and the mass for the ribosomal subunit
Kingdome fungi are more closely related to animals than plants
TRUE
Bacteria include
chloroflexus
purple bacteria
chloroplast
cyanobacteria flavobacteria
thermotogales
aquifex
archea include
halophiles
methanothermus
Methanococcus
Thermoproteus
Pyrodictium
Thermococcus
Eukarya include
Animals
Fungi
Plants
Ciliates
Flagellates
Trichonomads
Microsporidia
slime molds
diatoms
entoamoebae
the bacteria
archaea
and eukarya are related by what common ancestor
LUCA
Last unknown common ancestor
the order of evolution for bacteria archaea and eukarya
prebiotic soups
RNA world
Dna genomes
then LUCA
staphyloccoci are
sherical shaped bacteria in grape like cluster
streptococci
spherical shaped bacteria growing in chains
tetrads
spherical shaped bacteria in a group of four
Sarcina
dice cube of bacteria spherically shaped growing in groups of eight
neisseria
coffee bean shaped bacteria
monotrichous
rod shaped with polar flagella
multi flagella NON polar
peritrichous
rod shaped with multipolar
lophotrichous
VIBRIO
comma or bent rod shaped bacteria
spirochetes
flexible spiral shaped bacteria
spirillum
makes it a rigid spiral shaped bacterium
mycelia
found in bacteria called actinomycetes
shperical shaped spores
the spores if shaped spherically
are called conidia
mycelia are commonly found in
molds
hyphae or mycellium
these are hairlike protrusions in molds
filamentous bacteria have trichome
which is when the bacterium is surrounded by a sheath
endospores
a specialized structure
allows it to beresistant to heat and drying
what is dessication
drying
the position of a spore may be
central
terminal
subterminal
id's bactera of th genre bacillus clostridium
what are the Spore Forming Bacteria
Bacillus
Clostridium
Sporolactobacillus
desulfotomaculum
sporosarcina
bacillus
aerobic
rod shaped
find in air soil and water
major pathogen is _______ anthracis
clostridium
anaerobic
rod shaped bacterium
soil
clostridium major pathogens include
C. tetanus
C. perfingens - gangrene
C. Botulism deadly food poisoning in can food
sporolactobacillus
lactic acid producing
fermenting rod shaped
desulfotomaculum
a rod shaped
anaerobic
sulfate respiration
sulfate reducing bacterium
sporosarcina
sperical shapes
sporeforming cocci
packet of 8 in a cube
this is sarcina
motility in bacteria
has a main active locomotor organelle called flagella
how do bacteria move if there is no flagella
gliding bacteria and spirochetes
Brownian Movement
in honor of the botanist Robert Brown) is either the random movement of particles suspended in a fluid or the mathematical model used to describe such random movements, often called a Wiener process.
Classification is
a form of organization which divides the organisms into taxonomic groups based on physical things
identification
is it described and classified
or is it unidentified
thats what you have to determine
how to ID
name according to the nomenclature
placed into a taxon or eisting class system
nomenclature
is the process of naming the new bacterialisolate or microorganism
there no classification of bacteria document not even
bergey's that is recognized by all microbios
binomial nomenclature
Latin or latinized greek
the genus name
then then then
the species name always underlined or italicized
genus always capitalized
FIND THE TREND
diplococcus pneumonia
cocci in pairs - pneumonia
FIND THE TREND
straphylococci aureus
grapelike golden clusters
colden color colonies
FIND THE TREND
Streptococcus pyogenes
cocci in chains
forming pus
anything coccus
means cocci shaped
pnuemonia
aureus- golden cluster
pyogenes
makes pus ewww
roseus
red colored colonies
.
clostridium
anaerobic spore forming bacterium rod shaped
Prokaryotes?
unicellular organissms
cyanobacteria
rigid cell walls
cellular filamentous entities or actual mycelial forms
prokaryotes exist as single occuring freeliving cells
simple associations
prokaryotes are asexual
divide by binary fission
prokaryotes lack a
nuclear membrane
that means a single chromosome composed of pure double stranded dna fibril
WHO has 70s ribosomes
Prokaryotes
whos got the 80s ribosomes
Eukaryotes