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85 Cards in this Set

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secreted from cell:


certin gram+ and gram- bacteria
tetanus, botulism, diptheria are examples of _________

high toxicity (fatal dose of 1 ug)

highly antigenic

toxoids used as vaccines
cell wall of most gram- bacteria and Listeria, not secreted from cell.

-low toxicity
-poorly antigenic
-fever, shock
alpha toxin causues gas gangrene; get double zone of hemolysis on blood agar
clostridium perfringens
blocks the release of acetylcholine; CNS paralysis; spores found in canned food; honey
Clostridium botulinum
Organisms that have IgA proteases that allow organisms to colonize mucosal surfaces (4):
Strep pneumoniae

Neisseria meningitidis

N. gonorrhoeae

H. influenzae
organism that is catalase +, coagulase -, and novobiocin R:
Staphylococcus saprophyticus
Organism that is catalase +, coagulase -, and novobiocin S:
Staph epidermidis
2 organisms that are alpha hemolytic:
Strep pneumoniae

Viridans strep
Catalase neg, alpha hemolysis, optochin S, bile soluble:
Strep pneumoniae

+ Quellung (capsule)
Catalase neg, alpha hemolysis, optochin R, NOT bile soluble:
Viridans strep
Catalase neg, beta hemolytic, bacitracin S:
Group A strep: Strep pyogenes
Catalase neg, beta hemolytic, bacitracin R:
Group B Strep: Strep agalactiae
Gram + Rods:
Clostridium (anaerobe)
Gram - cocci (2 organisms):
Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Neisseria meningitidis (maltose fermenter)
Gram - coccoid rods (4 organisms):
Haemolphilus influenzae

Pasteurella (animal bites)


Bordetella pertussis
Gram - rod, lactose nonfermenter, oxidase +:
Gram - rod, lactose nonfermenter, oxidase neg (3 organisms):
gram - rod, fast lactose fermenter (3 organisms):
E. coli
gram - rod, slow lactose fermenter (2 organisms):
Factor V is:
Factor X is:
H. influenzae media:
Chocolate agar w/ X & V factors
N. gonorrhoeae media:
Thayer-Martin (VCN) agar
B. pertussis media:
Bordet-Gengou (potato) agar
C. diphtheria media:
Tellurite plate

Loffler's medium

blood agar
M. tuberculosis media:
Lowenstein-Jensen agar
Legionella media:
charcoal yest extract buffered w/ increased iron and cysteine
Fungi media:
sabouraud's agar
obligate intracellular bugs (2):
Chlamydia & Rickettsia

Can't make own ATP
Encapuslated bacteria (4)
Strep pneumoniae

Haemophilus influenzae

neisseria meningitidis

Klebsiella pneumoniae
tumbling motility, meningitis in newborns, unpasteurized milk, beta hemolytic:
Listeria monocytogenes
rheumatic fever, acute glomerulonephritis, pharyngitis, impetigo, scarlet fever, & toxic shock syndrome are caused by what organism:
Group A strep

Streptococcus pyogenes

-Bacitracin sensitive
-Antibody to M protein enhances host defense
most common cause of meningitis, otitis media, pneumonia, sinusitis:
strep pneumoniae

optochin sensitive

associated w/ rusty sputum
enterococci can/can't grow in 6.5% NaCl.
can grow in 6.5% NaCl

Group D cannot grow in 6.5% NaCl
Viridans strep are _________ to optochin.
resistant to optochin

"not afriad of the chin"
live in the mouth/optochin resistant

cause dental caries and subacute bacterial endocarditis
Woolsorters' disease-inhalation of spores from contaminated wool (organism):
bacillus anthrasis

gram+ spore-forming rod

black painless skin lesions
a gram + and weakly acid-fast aerobe in soil that causes pulmonary infection in immunocompromised patients:
Nocardia asteroides

long branching filaments resembling fungi
gram - cocci, no capsule, no maltose fermentation, no vaccine, causes gonorrhea, septic arthritis, neonatla conjunctivitis and PID:
Neisseria gonococci
gram - cocci, capsule, maltose fermentation, vaccine, causes meningococcemia and meningitis, Waterhouse-Fridericksen syndrome
Neisseria meningococci
Factor V is:
Factor X is:
The _______ (H) antigen is found in motile species of Enterobacteriaceae
flagellar antigen (H)
The capsular (K) antigen is related to the ________ of the bug (Enterobacteriaceae)
All species of Enterobacteriaceae have _______ (O) antigen which is the polysaccharide of endotoxin).
somatic (O) antigen
Lastose-Fermenting enteric bacteria (4):

E. coli



Lactose is KEE
Salmonella is _______ and can invade futher and disseminate hematogenously.
motile (salmon swim)

Salmonella has an animal reservoir

Non-lactose fermenter, invade intestinal mucosa and can cause blood diarrhea
Shigella is more/less virulent than Salmonella.
Shigella is MORE virulent than Salmonella

Transmitted via Food, Finger, Feces, and Flies

Non-lactose fermenter, invade intestinal mucosa and can cause blood diarrhea
all species of enterobacteriaceae ferment ________ and are ______ negative.
ferment glucose and are oxidase negative
organism found in reheated meat dishes
Clostridium perfringens
comma or S-shaped organism; growth at 42 degrees C; bloody diarrhea; oxidase positive:
rice water stools; comma-shaped organism:
Vibrio cholerae
Gram-negative rod (gram stains poorly); grow on charcoal yest extract w/ iron and cysteine; aerosol transmission from environomental water source habitat; no person-to-person transmission
Legionella pneumophila
aerobic gram-neg rod; non-lactose fermenting; oxidase positve, blue-green pigment
Pseudomonas aeruginosa

burn victims & water
Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces _________ pigment.
pyocyanin pigment (blue-green)
disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi:
Lyme disease

Trasmitted by Ixodes ticks that live on deer and mice
Disease caused by Brucella:
Brucellosis/Undulant fever

Trasmitted by dairy products, contact with animals
Transmission of Francisella tularensis
tick bite; rabbits; deer

Causes Tularemia
Disease caused by Pasteurella multocida:
Transmission of Pasteurella multocida:
animal bite from cat/dog
Transmission of Yersinia pestis:
flea bite; rodents (especially prarie dogs)

Brucella is transmitted by:
dairy products; contact w/ animals
a pleomorphic, gram-variable rod that causes vaginosis-green vaginal discharge w/ fishy smell
Gardnerella vaginalis

Mobiluncus (anaerobe) is also involved

Clue cells (vaginal epithelial cells covered w/ bacteria) are visable under microscope
Leprosy is caused by what organism:
Mycobacterium leprae

acid-fast bacillus that likes cool temperatures and cannot be grown in vitro!

reservoir in US armadillos
The two forms of Chlamydiae are:
1. Elementary body: (small,dense) enters cell via endocytosis

2. Reticulate Body: replicates in cell by fission
Types A, B, and C of Chlamydia trachomatis cause:
african blindness, chronic infection
Types D-K of Chlamydia trachomatis cause:
urethritis/PID, ectopic pregnancy, neonatal pneumonia, or neonatal conjunctivitis
Types L1-3 of Chlamydia trachomatis cause:
lymphogranuloma venereum

acute lymphadenitis-positive Frei test
Spirochetes are spiral-shaped bacterial w/ axial filaments and include _______, ________, & ________.
Borrelia (big size), Leptospira, and Treponema

Lyme disease caused by Borrelia burdgoferi displays the classical symptom of:
an expanding bull's eye red rash with central clearing

also affects CNS, joints and heart

Can develop Bell's Palsy
What causes syphillis?
Treponema pallidum

1. presents w/ painless chancre
2. disseminated disease w/ rash on soles and palms
3. neurosyphilis
The test for syphilis that is most specific, earliest positive, and remains positive the longest is:
The FTA-ABS is positive:
in an active infection and successfully treated infection
The VDRL is positive:
in an active infection and can be a false positive.

Negative after successful treatment
VDRL detects nonspecific antibdoy that reacts with ______ _______________.
beef cardiolipin

biologic false postives include:
1. viral infection (mono/hepatitis)
2. drugs
3. rheumatic fever, rheumatoid arthritis
4. Lupus & Leprosy
Coccidioidomycosis is seen in what location?
Southwest US, California

Spherule filled with endospores
Histoplasmosis is seen in what location?
Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys
Bird or Bat Droppings transmit what systemic mycoses?

Intracellular (tiny yeast inside macrophages)
Paracoccidioidomycosis is endemic to what location?
Rural latin america

Captian's Wheel appearance
Blastomycosis is endemic to what location?
East of Mississsippi River and Central America

Big, Broad-Based, budding yeast
tinea versicolor is caused by _______ _______.
Malassezia furfur

causes hypopigmented skin lesions
tinea nigra is caused by _______ _______.
Cladosporium werneckii

infection of keratinized layer of skin---brownish spot
opportunistic fungus found in pigeon droppings?
Cryptococcus neoformans

heavily encapsulated yeast

stains with india ink
mold with irregular nonseptate hyphae branching at wide angles (>90)
mucor and rhizopus

disease mostly seen in ketoacidotic diabetic and leukemic patients
mold with sepate hyphae that branch at a V-shape (45) angle. Not dimorphic.
Aspergillus fumigatus

fungus ball (lung cavity aspergilloma)

allergic bronchopulmonary aspergiillosis