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10 Cards in this Set

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1) Superficial mycoses
Characteristics
Examples
limited to outermost layers of hair and skin - no host response elicited (b/c they don't grow on living host tissues)

Tinea nigra and versicolor infect keratinized layer of skin
White and black piedra infect hair
2) Cutaneous mycoses
Characteristics
keratinophilic fungi (with keratinases) - Infections are deeper in epidermis as well as infections of hair and nails - referred to as "ringworm" or tinea - markedly exacerbated by immune deficiencies
3) Subcutaneous mycoses
Description
involves dermis and subcutaneous tissue - infections occur at trauma sites where organism implanted into tissue
Lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis =

Chromoblastomycosis =
chronic infection - nodular and ulcerative lesions along lymphatic glands that drain primary inoculation site

warty nodules at implant sites
FREQUENCY/IMPORTANCE
Primary issue with superficial mycoses =

Who do cutaneous infections usually affect?

Where are subcutaneous infections usually found?
cosmetic problem

Incidence generally higher in close or crowded living
Tinea capitus - pediatric
Tinea pedis and cruris (jock itch) - more common in men

rare in highly developed countries
SUPERFICIAL PATHOGENS

Tinea versicolor:
What pathogen causes it?
Growth conditions

Tinea nigra:
Pathogen
Structure

Where are organisms acquired?
Malassezia furfur
Lipophilic, grows around sweat glands

Cladosporium (Exophiala) werneckii
melanin-producing, dimorphic

Transmitted by soil, animals, or direct human contact
CUTANEOUS PATHOGENS

Causative agent (general)
Three genera
Three classifications
dermatophytes

Microsporum, trichophyton, epidermophyton

geophilic (soil), zoophilic (animals), anthrophilic (humans)
SUBCUTANEOUS PATHOGENS

Can be found where?

2 examples
On decaying plant matter

Sporothrix shenkii - dimorphic, causes sporotrichosis
Dematiaceous fungi - causes chromoblastomycosis - has brown to black melanin
Diagnosis of superficial and cutaneous mycoses:

Endothrix vs Ectothrix:
observe fungal elements in clinical specimens

10% NaOH mount

Fungi inside vs outside hair shaft
PREVENTION/TREATMENT:

Superficial
Cutaneous
Subcutaneous
1) topical or oral antifungal drugs

2) for dermatophytes - azoles with griseofulvin

3) Surgical intervention may be required