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102 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Amino Acid capsule (not polysaccharide)
Bacillus anthracis, capsule contains D-glutamate
Organisms with IgA Proteases
S. pneumo, N. meningitidis, N. gonorrhoeae, H. influenzae
Gram positive organism with endotoxin
Listeria mono.
Bacteria that don't gram stain well
Treponema pallidum (too thin to be visualized, need darkfield microscopy of IF)
Rickettsia (obligate IC, technically grm - rod, sz of large virus)
Chlamydia (obligate IC, technically grm - rod/coccoid, sz of large virus, has inner/outer membrane but no muramic acid in cell wall and no PG layer)
Legionella (primarily IC, grm - rod, see best with Silver Stain)
Mycobacteria (high lipid content in cell wall, Acid Fast)
Mycoplamsa (no cell wall, really tiny)
Exotoxins - Superantigens
Activate large # T cells by binding MHC II and TCR, stim IFNg and IL-2
-Staph aureus (TSST-1 causing TSS, Enterotoxin causing food poisoning
-Strep pyogenes (Erthrogenic toxin causing TSS-like, Scarlet fever
Exotoxins - ADP ribosylating A-B toxins
Interfere with host cell function, Binding and Active component, A component attaches ADP-ribosyl to host cell protein and alters function.
-Corynebacterium diptheriae (ADP rib. EF2, inactivates it, inhibiting mRNA translation, prot synthesis; pharyngitis and pseudomembrane in throat)
-Vibrio cholerae (ADPrib of Gprot --> incr. cAMP, incr. NACL secretion, decr. NaCL reabs, RICE WATER DIARRHEA)
-E. coli (Heat-labile incr. cAMP like cholera -->watery diarrhea, heat-stable incr. cGMP)
-Bordella pertussis (incr. cAMP, causes WHOOPING COUGH, impaired phagocytosis and chemotaxis, tracheal cytotoxin damages resp epith)
Exotoxins - others
-Clostridium perfringens, tetani, botulinum
-Bacillus anthracis
-Strep pyog
Exotoxins - clostridium perfringens
alpha toxin is lecinthinase, causes cell death, GAS GANGRENE, double zone of hemolysis blood agar
Exotoxins - clostridium tetani
Inhibits glycine release, NO INHIBITION of neurons, spastic paralysis/lockjaw
Exotoxins - clostridium botulinum
Inhibits ACh release, blocking NMJ, anticholinergix symps and flaccid paralysis (esp CNs), found in canned food and honey, FLOPPY BABY
Exotoxins - bacillus anthracis
Toxin complex, one is an adenylate cyclase, edema factor and lethal factor (zinc metalloprotease that causes macs to release TNFa and IL1b)
Exotoxins - Shigella
Shiga toxin, also produced by E. coli 0157:H7, inhibits prot synth by cleaving host cell rRNA, enhances cytokine release, kills absorptive intestinal epith --> BLOODY DIARRHEA, also causes HUS
Exotoxins - Strep pyog
Streptolysin O - a hemolysin, the antigen for the ASO antibody in rheumatic fever
Sugar fermentation of Neisseria
Meningococci ferment Maltose and Glucose, Gonococci ferment just Glucose
Bacteria producing yellow pigment
Staph aureus
Bacteria producing a blue-green pigment
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Bacteria producing a red pigment
Serratia marcenscens (like maraschino cherries)
Gram positive rods
Clostridium, Corynebacterium, Listeria, Bacillus
Gram positive cocci
Staph and Strep
Catalase positive gram positive cocci
Gram positive cocci in clusters
Catalase negative gram positive cocci
Gram positive cocci in chains
Gram positive, catalase positive, coagulase positive
Staph aureus
Gram posititive, catalase positive, coagulase negative
s. epidermidis (novobiocin sensitive), s. saprophyticus (noboviocin resistant)
Gram positive, catalase negative, green (partial hemolysis)
Alpha hemolytic strep (strep pneumo and viridans)
Gm pos, Cat neg, alpha hemolytic (green/partial hemolysis), optochin sensitive and bile soluble
Strep pneumo - capsule (positive quellung)
Gm pos, Cat neg, alpha hemolytic (green/partial hemolysis), optochin resistant and not bile soluble
Viridans Streptococci (eg strep mutans) - no capsule
Gram positive, catalase negative, clear hemolysis
Beta hemolytic strep - Group A (S. pyogenes), and Group B (s. agalactiae
Beta hemolytic, Group A strep
S. pyogenes, bacitracin sensitive
Beta hemolytic, Group B strep
S. agalactiae, bacitracin resistant
Gram positive, catalase negative, no hemolysis
Gamma hemolytic (or alpha) - Enterococcus and Peptostreptococcus
Gram Negative cocci
Neisseria (diplococci)
Gram negative cocci, maltose fermenter
n. meningitidis
gram negative cocci, maltose nonfermenter
n. gonorrhoeae
Gram negative "coccoid" rods
Haemophilus influenze, pasteurella, brucella, bordella pertussis
(also rickettsia but too small to see, obligate IC)
Associated with animal bites
Pasteurella - gram neg coccoid rod
Associated with unpasteurized dairy products
Brucella - brucellosis, gram neg coccoid rod
Causes whooping cough
Bordetella pertussis - gm neg coccoid rod
Gram negative rods
SO MANY! Klebsiella, E.coli, Shigella, Salmonella, Proteus, Pseudomonas are major ones.
Also enterbacter, citrobacter, serratia, others
also legionella (primarily IC, silver stain), and chlamydia (IC, very small, giemsa stain)
Chocolate agar with factors V (NAD) and X (hematin)
H. influenzae
Thayer-Martin media
N. gonorrhoeae - get gonorrhea on thayer st!
Bordet-Gengou (potato agar)
Bordella pertussis
Tellurite plate, Loffler's medium, blood agar
Coryne. diphtheriae
Lowenstein-Jensen agar
M. tuberculosis
Pink colonies on MacConkey's agar
lactose fermenting enterics
Charcoal yeast extract buffered with increased iron and cysteine
Sabouraud's agar
Gram negative nods, lactose fermenters
Klebsiella, e. coli, enterobacter, citrobacter, serratia, others
Gram negative rods, slow lactose fermenters
Citrobacter, serratia, others
Gram negative rods, fast lactose fermenters
Klebsiella, e. coli, enterbacter
Gram negative rods, lactose nonfermenters
Shigella, Salmonella, Proteus, Pseudomonas
Gram negative rods, oxidase negative
Shigella, Salmonella, Proteus
Gram negative rods, oxidase positive
Media for h. flu?
Chocolate agar with factors V (NAD) and X (hematin)
Media for n. gonorrhoeae?
Thayer-Martin media
Media for b. pertussis?
Bordet-Gengou potato agar
Media for C. diphtheriae?
Tellurite plate, Loffler's medium, blood agar
Media for m. tuberculosis?
Lowenstein-Jensen agar
Media for lactose fermenting enterics?
Pink colonies on MacConkey's agar
Media for legionella?
Charcoal yeast extract agar buffered with increased iron and cysteine
Media for fungi?
Sabouraud's agar
Congo red stain is used for:
Amyloid; apple-green birefringence in polarized light (because of beta pleated sheets)
Giemsa's stain is used for:
Borrelia, Plasmodium, trypanosomes, chlamydia
PAS (periodic acid-Schiff) is used for:
Stains glycogen, mucopolysaccharides; used to diagnose Whipple's disease
Ziehl-Neelsen stain is used for:
Acid-fast bacteria (like mycobacteria)
India ink stain is used for:
Cryptococcus neoformans
Silver stain is used for:
Fungi, PCP, Legionella
What stain is used for amyloid?
Congo red
What stain is used for borrelia?
What stain is used for plasmodium?
What stain is used for trypanosomes?
What stain is used for chlamydia?
What stain is used for glycogen mucopolysaccharides?
What stain is used to diagnose Whipple's disease?
What stain is used for acid fast bacteria?
What stain is used for cryptococcus?
India Ink
What stain is used for fungi?
Silver stain
What stain is used for PCP?
silver stain
What stain is used for legionella?
Silver stain
Lysogeny is:
genetic code for a bacterial toxin encoded in a lysogenic phage
What are some lysogenic toxins?
botulinum, cholera, diphtheria, and erythrogenic (from strep pyog) toxins
Obligate aerobes
Nocardia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bacillus
What area of the lungs does m. TB have a predilection for?
Apices, because highest PO2
Associated with burn wounds, nosocomial pneumonia, and pneumonias in cystic fibrosis
Obligate anaerobes
Clostridium, Bacteroides, Actinomyces. Lack catalase and superoxide dismutase, so susceptible to oxidative damage
Foul-smelling and difficult to culture bacteria
Anaerobes! clostridium, bacteroides, actinomyces
Obligate intracellular bacteria
Rickettsia, chlamydia - can't make own ATP, both sz of large viruses and gram negative but don't stain
Facultative intracellular bacteria
Salmonella, Neisseria, Brucella, Mycobacterium, Listeria, Francisella, Legionella, Yersinia
Encapsulated bacteria
strep pneumo, h. flu (especially B serotype), n. meningitidis, klebsiella pneumo
Quellung reaction
If encapsulated bug is present, capsule SWELLS when speficif anticapsular antisera are added
Which bacteria can form spores?
Bacillus anthracis, clostridium perfringens, c. tetani (gram positive soil bugs)
Alpha hemolytic bacteria?
show partial hemolysis (green)
1)Strep pneumo (catalase negative and optochin sensitive)
2)Viridans streptococci (catalase negative and optochin resistant)
Beta hemolytic bacteria?
show complete hemolysis (clear)
1. Staph aureus (catalase and coagulase positive)
2. Strep pyogenes (catalase negative and bacitracin sensitive)
3. Strep agalactiae (catalase negative and bacitracin resistant)
4. Listeria monocytogenes (tumbling mobility, meningitis in newborns, unpasteurized milk)
What does the Ixodes tick transmit?
-Borrelia burgdorferi (a spirochete, causes Lyme disease)
-Babesia microti (a sporozoan parasite related to plasmodium)
-Ehrlichia (related to the rickettsiae)
What is the action of potassium clavulanate?
Inhibits beta-lactamases -- it's added to amoxicillin, which is a beta-lactam (making Augmentin).
Most common cause of infections involving prosthetic devices and catheters?
Staph epidermidis - produces a Biofilm that alters surface tension of liquids around it, can adhere to surfaces too slippery for other organisms (even Teflon!)
What is the major mechanism of antibiotic resistance in pseudomonas infection?
Mutation of a porin protein (restricts the flow of antibiotic into the cell)
What test do you use to confirm candida?
Germ tube test - demonstration of pseudohypha formation in animal serum
What is the CAMP test used for?
To identify a partial hemolytic agent produced by strep agalactiae (grp B strep). This test is used to distinguish between grp A and B strep along with bacitracin sensitivity
Which organisms produce urease?
h. pylori, proteus, ureaplasma, nocardia, cryptococcus
Amphotericin B's mechanism of action
Binding to the sterols in the fungal cell membrane