Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/111

Click to flip

111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cell wall
-algae and fungi
-chitin, cellulose, glycans
cell membrane
-phospholipid bilayer with proteins
nucleus
-linear dna wrapped around protein (histone)
-nucleolus
-envelope
nucleolus
-area of assembling robosomal subunits
envelope
-2 layers of membrane
-pores
haploid
-one set of chromosomes
diploid
-two sets of chromosomes
ER
-RER and SER
RER
-membranous structure with ribosomes attached
-protein synthesis for export
SER
-membranous structure without ribsomes
-lipid synthesis
golgi
-stack of membranous sacs
-packaging and transport
lysosome
-vesicles with digestive enzymes
mitochondria
-outer folded inner membrane
-inner membrane holds enzymes and electron carriers
ribosome
-rRNA+protein
-subunits: 60S and 40S
-whole ribosome is 80S
-protein synthesis
cytoskeleton
-network of fibers that support cell shape
-transport organelles to other cell components
-can be active in motion
fungi
-wall contains chitin
-ergosterol
-simple yeasts and molds
yeast
-unicellular
-macroscopic appearance as a colony
-oval;larger than bacteria
pseudohyphae
-yeast enlongates, buds, but does not detach
mold
-grow in robbon like structure called hyphae
-hyphae form web (mycelium)
-some divided by cross wall (septae)
-reproductive mycelium produce reproductive pores
saprobe
-to obtain energy from dead matter
sporulation
-asexual
-parent produces sexual spores
sporangiospores
-asexual
-spores develop within a sac
conidiospores
-asexual
-free spores are produced at the tip of hyphae
arthrospores
-asexual
-setate hyphae fragments atcross wall and cell acts as spores
chlamidia
-asexual
-spherical spores surrounded by a think wall
zygospores
-sexual
-spores remain attached to hyphae that fuse-->diploid zygote-->released into environment
ascospores
-sexual
-a spherical sac
basidiospores
-sexual
-formed on the outside of specialized club shapes spores= basidia
spores
-zygomycota
-ascomycota
-basidiamycota
-deutermycota
algae
-microscopic: protista
-component of plankton
medication
-dinoflagellates
-red tide
protozoa
-single celled microbes that have reproductive and physiological activities in a single cell
-ectoplasm, and endoplasm
-polymorphic or defined shape
-tophozoite
-cyst
ectoplasm
-in protozoa
-clear outer later in cytoplasm
endoplasm
-cytoplasm
-granular inner layer of cytoplasm
trophozoite
-protozoa
-feeding form
cyst
-protozoa
-resting, dormant form
amoeboid protozoa/ sarcodina
-movement
-ectoplasm pushes out to form pseudaopodia (false foot)
-most arefee livig
ciliated protozoa/ ciliophora
-move by the action of fine hair on the outside of the body
-balantidium coli: GI tract
-free living and harmless
flagellated protozoa/ mastigophora
-movement by propulsion
-most form cysts and arefree living; parasites
sporozoan protozoa/ apicomplexa
-not motile (only male gametes)
-coccidiorida contain parasites
-plasmodium: malaria
-cryptosporidium: intestinal
-toxoplasma: toxoplasmosis
helminthes
-tapeworms, fluke, roundworms
-microscope must be used to ID eggs and larvae
Nematode/ roundworm
-spindle shaped
-seperated sexes
flat worms
-cetode/ tapeworm, trematode/ fluke
cetode (tapeworm)
-robbon like structure
-suckers
-body divided into segments
trematode (fluke)
-leaf shape
virus
-20-400nm
-lack protein synthesizing material
-utilize host cell for reprod.
-external protein coat=capsid
-core nucleic acid
-together=nucleocapsid
capsid
-small, identical building blocks of proteins
-helical or icosahedral (20 sides and 12 corners)
virus interior
-many have additional outer layer= envelope
-spikes (protein)
herpes
-sherical envelope with icosohedral nucleocapsid
mumps
-spherical envelope with helical nucleocapsid
viral taxonomy
-nucleic acid shape
-capsid shape
-presence or absence of envelope
-host specificity
picornaviridae
-hep a, polio
-ss RNA, no envelope, icosohedral envelope, animal host
viral invasion
-absorption to a specific host cell receptor
-viral nucleic acid has to enter
recognition
-host cell must match virus recognition site (glycoproteins)
penetration
-endocytosis, direct fusion, nucleic acid translocation
endocytosis
-penetration
-the entire virus is engulfed
-enzymes digest the envelope to release the nucleocapsid
direct fusion
-the envelope fuses with the cell membrane and the nucleocapsid goes into the cell
translocation
-penetration
-some non enveloped viruses
-thecapsid adheres to cell membrane and nucleic acid is passed through the membrane into the host cells cytoplasm
viral uncoating
-penetration
-in translocation
-disruption of viral coat
pox virus
-replicates in cytoplasm of host cell
-contains own DNA dependent RNA polymerase
parovirus
-small ss DNA
-use host enzymes for biosynthetic processes
RNA viruses
-RNA enters host
-cycle occurs in cytoplasm
-bring messages
-pos genome, neg genome, ds RNA, ss RNA (convert to ds DNA)
negative ss RNA
-full length positive strand is used as a template for the viral nucleic acid
positive ss RNA
-polio, hep a
-RNAread directly from hosts ribosomes
-viral RNA is mRNA
-one product is RNA dpeendent RNA polymerase for the replication of the virus
ds RNA
-these bring their own transcriptase
-one strand-->positive mRNA to protein or to template for neg RNA
retrovirus
-reverse transcriptase converts ssRNA to ds DNA
-ds
viral assembly
-in replication, the subunits of proteins are assembled and an empty capsid is laid down. na is inverted
non enveloped viral assembly
-na released by lysis
enveloped viral assembly
-na released by exocytosis or budding
where budding occurs
-glycoprotein spikes acquires on the area, which displaces the host cells proteins
viral pathogenisis
-the immune response may control disease and show signs of the diease
-host and tissue specific
viral pathogenisis range factors
-cell surface receptors
-cell factors of gene expression
-cell factors for replication
transformation
-some viruses may alter growth cycle and metabolism
-transform the cells
-cells may grow without restraint
host response to a virus
-production of antibodies
-directed against the surface of the proteins of the virus
cellular response to a virus
-imprtant in termination and pathogenicity
-inhibit attachment and activate t-cells
interferon production
-proteins produced in response to a virus
-indice cell specific protein to inhibit replication
-destroy mRNA
-stimulate natural killer cell activity
cytopathic
-change in cell characteristics
antigen
-antibodies are labeled and are used to detect viral antigens (proteins)
antibody
-immunoassays are available to detect the appearance of antibodies
prion
-infectious agent
-protein without na
viroid
-infectious agent
-na without a protein coat
satellite virus
-infectious agent
-virus like agents that need the help of other viruses
steno
-narrow range
eury
-wide range
faculatative
-not necessary
eurythermic
-grows in a wide range of temperatures
heterotroph: photo
organic, light
heterotroph: chemo
-organic, nutrients from other organisms
autotroph: photo
-CO2, sunlight
autotroph: chemo
-CO2, simple inorganic substances
saprobes
-use organic carbon sources and metabolize organic matter from dead organisms
temperature
-microbes have no internal control over temperature
cardinal temp: minimal
-starting point for growth
cardinal temp: optimal
-highest rate of growth
cardinal temp: maximum
-highest temp tolerable for growth
psychrophile
-below 20
-faculatative
mesophile
-10-50
-flora and pathogens
-thermoduric (survive in high temp)
thermophile
-above 40
-hyperthermophile
acidophiles
-pH 1.5
-mold and yeasts
basophile/ alkalinophile
-8.5-11.5
-the external pH is kept constant by expelling hydroxyl and protons
aerobe
-obligate
-faculatative
-grow with or without O2
anaerobes
-obligate
-die in O2
-do not have detox mechanisms
-aerotolerant can tolerate O2
capnophile
-grow best at high CO2 levels
osmophile
-environment with high sugar
non-symbiotic
-free living, rel. not req.
-synergism
-antagonism
symbiotic
-close nutritional rel.
-mutualism
-commensalism
-parasitism
measuring cell growth
-cell number
-cell mass
cell mass
-measurement of turbidity with spectrophotometer
lag
-flat
-inoculated cells adjust
log
-growth is exponential
-cell grow with nutrients and in a favorable environment
stationary
-level
-waste accumulates