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53 Cards in this Set

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T/F: strep pyogenes is catalase negative and bacitracin sensitive
TRUE
3 pyogenic manifestations of strep pyogenes
pharyngitis, cellulitis, impetigo
Which is not a toxigenic manifestation of strep pyogenes: scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, TSS, acute glomerulonephritis
Rheumatic fever and acute glomerulonephritis are immune-mediated
List 5 signs and symptoms characteristic of rheumatic fever
PECCS: polyarthritis, erythema marginatum, chorea, carditis, subcutaneous nodules
T/F: Enterococci are penicillin G sensitive and show variable hemolysis
F - they are resistant, but do have variable hemolysis
Lancefield group D includes ___ and ___, which can be differentiated through ___ (lab test)
Enterococci and non-enterococcal Group D strep. Enterococci can grow on 6.5% NaCl, and non-enterococci cannot.
Lancefield grouping is based on ___ on the bacterial cell wall
C carbohydrate
Viridans Strep are ___ hemolytic
alpha
Strep mutans causes ___
dental caries
S. sanguis causes ___
bacterial endocarditis
How do you differentiate viridans strep from S. pneumoniae in the laboratory?
Both are alpha-hemolytic, but viridans strep is resistant to optochin (live in the mouth, not afraid of-the-chin)
T/F: Clostridia are gram-positive, spore-forming, microaerophilic bacteria
False - they are obligate anaerobes
Name 4 types of Clostridia and disease caused by each
Tetanus - tetanic paralysis, Botulinum - flaccid paralysis, Perfringens - gangrene, Difficile - diarrhea
How does Clostridia cause tetanic paralysis?
Exotoxin blocks glycine (inhibitory neurotransmitter) release from Renshaw cells in spinal chord leading to tetanic paralysis
How does C. botulinum cause flaccid paralysis?
Preformed, heat - labile toxin inhibits ACh release
T/F: C. perfringens produces alpha-toxin, a globulin that causes myonecrosis, gas gangrene, or hemolysis
False - alpha-toxin is a lecithinase
What causes pseudomembranous colitis? How is it treated?
Cytotoxin, an alpha toxin produced by C. diff, usu after antibiotic use (clindamycin ar ampicillin). Treat with metronidazole.
Exotoxin is encoded by ___ and ihibits ___ by ADP-ribosylation of ___
beta-prophaage, protein synthesis, EF-2
T/F: Symptoms of diphtheria include pseudomembranous pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, and hematuria
Does not cause hematuria
Lab tests for Diphtheria
Gram-positive, club-shaped rods with metachromatic granules; grow on tellurite agar
ABCDEFG of diphtheria
ADP ribosylation, Beta-prophage, Corynebacterium, Diphtheriae, EF-2, Granules
Anthrax is caused by ___ (bacteria)
Bacillus anthracis
T/F: Bacillus anthracis is spore-forning and gram negative rod
FALSE - it is a gram-positive rod
What is the progression of anthrax?
Contact leads to malignant pustule (painless ulcer) which can progress to bacteremia and death
What is woolsorter's disease?
Life-threatening pneumonia caused by inhalation of spores
Characteristic lesion of anthrax
Black skin lesions - vesicular papules covered by black eschar
Actinomycis, Nocardia are gram___ rods that form long-branching filaments resembling fungi
positive
What air requirement do actinomysis and nocardia have?
Actinomyces is an anaerobe and nocardia is an aerobe
A vs. N (pick one): pulmonary infection in immunocompromized
nocardia
A vs. N (pick one): oral/facial abscess with sulfur granules that may drain through sinus tracts in skin
actinomyces
A vs. N (pick one): Normal oral flora
actinomyces
A vs. N (pick one): Weakly acid fast
nocardia
What treatment do you use for actinomycis? For nocardia?
SNAP - sulpha for nocardia; actinomyces use penicillin
Gram negative bugs are ___ to benzyl penicillin G and ____ to penicillin derivatives such as ampicillin
resistant, may be susceptible
T/F: Vancomycin can enter gram-negative bacteria
False - gram-negative outer membrane layer inhibits entry of penicillin G and vancomycin
Bugs causing food poisoning: Reheated rice
Bacillus cereus
Bugs causing food poisoning: Contaminated seafood
Vibrio parahemolyticus and vulnificus
Bugs causing food poisoning: Meats, mayonaise, custard
S. aureus
Bugs causing food poisoning: Reheater meat dishes
C. perfringens
Bugs causing food poisoning: Improperly canned food
C. botulinum
Bugs causing food poisoning: Undercooked meat
E. coli 0157:H7
Bugs causing food poisoning: Poultry, meat, eggs
Salmonella
Name diarrheal organism associated with the following:: Ferments lactose and causes non-bloody diarrhea
enterotoxigenic E. coli
Name diarrheal organism associated with the following:: Comma-shaped organism
Vibrio cholerae
Name diarrheal organism associated with the following:: Does not ferment lactose, motile, bloody diarrhea
Salmonella
Name diarrheal organism associated with the following:: Does not ferment lactose, nonmotile, very low ID50, bloody diarrhea
Shigella
Name diarrheal organism associated with the following:: Comma or S-shaped, growth at 42 degrees, bloody diarrhea
Campylobaxter jejuni
Name diarrheal organism associated with the following:: Transmitted by seafood
Vibrio parahemolyticus
Name diarrheal organism associated with the following:: Transmitted through pet feces (puppies), bloody diarrhea
Yersenia enterocolitica
Name diarrheal organism associated with the following:: Rice-water stools
Vibrio cholerae
Name diarrheal organism associated with the following:: 4 non-bacterial causes of non-bloody diarrhea
Virus - rotavirus, norwalk virus; protozoan - Cryptosporidium and Giardia
Name diarrheal organism associated with the following:: Ferments lactose and causes bloody diarrhea
E. coli 0157:H7
Name diarrheal organism associated with the following:: Protozoan cause of bloody diarrhea
Entamoeba histolytica