Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/69

Click to flip

69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a chemical bond in which electrons are shared between two atoms
covalent bond
destruction of the folding properties of a protein leading (usually) to loss of biological activity
denaturation
on form of a molecule that is the mirror image of another form of the same molecule
enantiomer
a type of covalent bond that links sugar units together in a polysaccharide
glycosidic bond
a weak chemical bond between a hydrogen atom and a second, more electronegative element, usually an oxygen or nitrogen atom
hydrogen bond
glycerol bonded to fatty acids or other hydrophobic molecules by ester or ether linkage. often contain other groups as well, such as phosphate
lipid
polymer of covalently linked monomeric units
macromolecule
two or more atoms chemically bonded to one another
molecule
possessing hydrophobic characeristics and not easily dissolved in water
nonpolar
a nucleotide without its phosphate group
nucleoside
a monomer of a nucleic acid containing a nitrogen base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, ucracil), a molecule of phosphate, and a sugar (either ribose in RNA or deoxyribose is DNA)
nucleotide
a type of covalent bond joining amino acids in a polypeptide
peptide bond
a type of covalent bond linking nucleotides together in a polynucleotide
phosphodiester bond
possessing hydrophilic characteristics and generally water-soluble
polar
a chemical compound formed by polymerization and consisting of repeating units called monomers
polymer
a polymer of nucleotides bonded to one another by phosphodiester groups
polynucleotide
a polymer of amino acids bonded to one another by peptide bonds
polypeptide
a polymer of sugar units bonded to one another by glycosidic bonds
polysaccharide
in an informational macromolecule, such as a polypeptide, the precise sequence of monomeric units
primary structure
a polypeptide or group of polypeptides that form a molecule of specific biological function
protein
in proteins, the number and arrangement of individual polypeptides in the final protein molecule
quaternary structure
the initial pattern of folding of a polypeptide or a polynucleotide, usually dictated by opportunities for hydrogen bonding
secondary structure
the final folded structure of a polypeptide that has previously attained secondary structure
tertiary structure
weak attractive forces that occur between atoms when they become closer than about 3-4 angstroms
van der waals forces
cytosine links w/ ___ in DNA
guanine
adenine links w/ ____ in DNA
thymine
major component element of all macromolecules
carbon
plays a major role in folding pattern of proteins; occurs when nonpolar molecules cluster in an aqueous environment
hydrophobic interactions
proteins are polymers of monomers called ____
amino acids
nucleic acids are polymers of _____; found in cells in two forms, RNA and DNA
nucleotides
most abundant class of macromolecule
proteins
have hydrophobic properties and play crucial roles in membrane structure and as storage depots for excess carbon
lipids
polymers of sugars, present primarily in cell wall
polysaccharides
organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in ratio of 1:2:1
carbohydrates
most abundant of all sugars, C6 H12 O6
glucose
c5 sugars, play role as structural backbone of nucleic acids
pentoses
c6 sugars, monomeric constituents of cell wall polymers and energy reserves
hexoses
important bacterial cell wall polymer that contains glucose derivative NAG (N-acetylglucosamine)
peptidoglycan
monosaccharides are joined by ____ to form polysaccharides
glycosidic bonds
two/three/several more/extremely long chain monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds
disaccharide/trisaccharide/oligosaccharide/polysaccharide
primary constituents of lipids in bacteria and eukarya
fatty acids
the c3 alcohol that bonds with fatty acids to form simple lipids
glycerol
alternate name of simple lipids; named so because three fatty acids are linked to glycerol molecule
triglyceride
lipids containing a phosphate group
phospholipids
chemical property of lipids that make them ideal structural component of membranes
amphipathic
showing properties of bother hydrophobicity and hydro philicity
aphipathic
polysaccharide combined w/ a protein
glycoprotein
polysaccharide combined w/ a lipid
glycolipid
adenine and guanine are ___ bases
purine
thymine, cytosine, uracil are all ___ bases
pyrimidine
___ bases contain two fused rings
purine
____ bases contain a single six membered ring
pyrimidine
a single phosphate connected by ester linkage to two seperate sugars; found in nucleic acids
phosphodiester bond
present in double-stranded form in cells
DNA
w/ few exceptions, ____ are single-stranded molecules
RNA
contains genetic information of DNA in a single-stranded molecule complementary in base sequence to a portion of the base sequence in DNA
messenger RNA, mRNA
"adaptor" molecules in protein synthesis, adapt genetic information found in language of nucleotides to language of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins
transfer RNA, tRNA
important structural and catalytic components of the ribosome, the protein synthesizing system of the cell
ribosomal RNA, rRNA
the monomeric units of proteins
amino acids
primarily, amino acids consist of only these elements:
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
type of bond that links amino acids
peptide bond
side groups of amino acids are denoted by ___ and are variable
R
an amino acid contains a ___, the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylic acid group
alpha carbon
functionaly group of an amino acid, COOH
carboxylic acid group
functional group of an amino acid, NH2
amino group
two molecules with same formula but different structual forms; related but not identical
isomers
enzymes that convert unusual form of a molecule to a readily metabolizable form
racemases
linear polypeptide wrapped around a cylinder (secondary structure)
alpha helix
chain of amino acids folding back and forth upon itself (secondary structure)
beta sheet