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5 Cards in this Set

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Spirochete

Treponema pallidum

Syphillis
Transmission/Vector: Direct sexual/mucous membrane contact

Reservior: Human

Stages:

Primary: painless skin lesion - chancre
Secondary: skin lesion(s)
Latent: positive antibody - no clinical signs
Tertiary: tissue destruction, granulomatous lesion - gumma

Diagnosis: direct darkfield microscopy, direct flourescent antibody. Nontreponemal: VDRL, RPR
Treponemal: TPI, MHA-TP
Spirochete

Borrelia vincenti

acute necrotizing ulcerative gengivitis

Vincent's angina - trench mouth
Diagnosis: Gram stain from lesion - spirochetes and G(-) fusiform bacteria

Stress and neglect of oral hygiene may contribute.
Spirochete

Borrelia recurrentis

EPIDEMIC relapsing fever
Transmission/Vector: human body louse
Reservior: human
Stages: cycles of symptomatic/asymptomatic periods due to antigenic variation in the outer membrane, due to genetic rearrangement.

NON-ZOONOTIC

Diagnosis: organism in blood easily seen during FEBRILE periods
Spirochetes

Borrelia recurrentis

ENDEMIC relapsing fever
Transmission/Vector: tick

Reservior: rodents, soft-bodied ticks

Stages: cycles of symptomatic/asymptomatic periods due to antigenic variation in the outer membrane, due to genetic rearrangement.

Diagnosis: organism in blood easily seen during FEBRILE periods

ZOONOTIC
Spirochete

Borrelia burgdorferi

Lyme disease
Transmission/Vector: hard tick - Ixodes

Reservior: rodents, deer, ticks

Stages:
First: red expanding skin lesion - erythema migrans. Flu-like symptoms.

Second: Neurological, cardiac, MS

Third: Severe neuro, card, arthritis

Serology should be used only to support clinical diagnosis.

Most frequently reported vector-borne disease in US. Vaccine now avail.