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61 Cards in this Set

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Increases in the # of cells in the population rather than an increase in the size of the individual cell
2-8% oxygen tolerant
Advantage to Standard plate count
counting only viable cells, high or low cell #s
maximum growth temp
highest temp to supprt growth
use oxidating of the organic carbon for energy animals, protozoans, fungi, & many bacteria
20-455 C opt 30s
Advantage to periodic subcultures
always readily available
use light and photosynthesis as energy source *unique to bacteria
45 C and up opt 50s
Advantage to low temp holding method
No change due to mutation
0 - 20 opt in the teens
Ph optimum for akalophiles
above 8
minimum growth temp
Lowest temp to support growth
Disadvantages to periodic subcultures
changes can occur due to mutation
do not use oxygen but are not harmed by it
Decline or Death phase
cell death greater then cell division generation time even longer. Environment becomes more unfavorable.
requires oxygen at a low concentration 5%
Spectometer shines what kind of light?
monochromatic light through the sample
optimum growth temperature
Best temp for growth
Growth Rate
exponential (doubles in size)
grow without oxygen and may be harmed by its presence
Disadvantages to ATCC
expensive and not readily available
grow weather oxygen is present or not
Generation time
time it takes for population to double varys depending on organism and condition
tolerate 0.5% of oxygen or less
Turbidity will increase?
When the cells increase
obligat arobe
requires oxygen
Disadvantages for Petroff-Hauser
cant always determine if the cells are dead or alive, not very useful for low cell #
able to withstand high temperatures non conclusive and non growing only survive
What do you use to measure turbidity?
use light and photosynthesis as energy source *unique to bacteria
Advantages to lyphilization
no change due to mutation, easily shipped to other people or labs
energy from oxidation of inorganic nutrients NH4, NO2, Fe, and S, compounds *unique to bacteria
Advantage to Turbidity
immediate result
37 C g.t. = 20 mins
20 C g.t. = 30 mins
Preservation of cultures
transfer to new growth environment (culture medium)
Lag phase ( no growth occuring)
period of adjustment when introduced to new environment (amount of time depends on previous environment)
Disadvantages for standard plate count
actual # may be greater than the # you count due to assumptions, cloudiness: consider the growth environment medium, temp, and O2 requirements
Direct microscopic count
stain smear sample & count # of cells
Disadvantages to turbidity
cant tell if cells are dead or alive, it is an indirect method and you must also uase a direct method at least once usually 1st time
colony forming units per 1 ml
Freeze drying (long term) High concentration of cells --- freeze 70 C --- remove H2o under vaccuum --- open vile --- transfer to growth medium --- incubate --- you will have the culture again
Carbon source - biosynthesis & primary energy source
O2 (inorganic) or organic
American Typ Culture Collection (purchase cultures)
Exponential or log phase
Most active growth population doubling at amximum generation
Low temp holding method
Freeze high concentration of cells --- 70 C hold at 70 C --- thaw --- transfer
Advantages for Petroff-Hauser
immeidate results, minimul equipment needed, observe morphology
Nutritional group
Lithotroph (autotroph)
"rock eating" grow on inorganic nutrients
carbon source O2
Growth curve in Life Cycle population
Life cycle of batch culture
Other nutritional requirements
water, and maybe growth factors such as vitamins, and amino acids
Standard plate count method
dilute sample --- plate onto agar --- incubate --- count colonies
assume that 1 cell = 1 colony alla cells will grow # of colonies * dilution = # of CFSus per ml
Nitrogen source - biosynthesis
NH4 inorganic or organic
Inorganic compounds and trace elements
SO4 sulfate, PO4, CA, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, NaCl
Ph optimum for acidophiles
below 6
use light and photosynthesis as energy source (plants, algae, bacteria)
PH optimum for neutrophiles
6.5 - 7.5
range 4-9
Stationary phase
Cell division and cell death are equal, due to decreased in nutrients. Also have build-up of waste (unfavorable environment). Generation time gets longer.
require organic carbon
used to count eucaryotic cells
Petroff-Hauser way to count bacteria
1mm area of slide filled with sample --- count areas of slide --- calculate --- # of cells per mm in sample