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25 Cards in this Set

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MOTILITY STAB

1.)What is it testing for?

2.)What is a positive and negative result?

3.)Interpret the Results
1.)whether the microbe is motile ( moves)

2.) positive result=red diffused growth radiating outward
negative result= red growth only along the stab line

3.) Red growth radiating outward means that the microbe is motile; if there is only red growth along the stab line then the microbe is non-motile.
MANNITOL SALT AGAR

1.)What is it testing for?

2.)What is a positive and negative result?

3.)Interpret the Results
1.)determine whether the microbe can survive in high NACl concentrations and ferment mannitol or do both

2.)positive result=yellow or halo (( belwo Ph 6.8)
negative result=no or poor growth;growth with outany color change,red growth

3.) yellow growth with halo=tolerance for NaCl and produces acid from mannitol

red growth=does not ferment but can grow in NaCl

poor growth or no growth=the microbe is inhibited by NaCl good

growth with no color change=
not inhibited by NaCl
PEA (Phenylethl alcohol agar) plate

1.)What is it testing for?

2.)What is a positive and negative result?

3.)Interpret the Results
1.)to isolate gram- positive microbes

2.)positive result=if you see growth
negative=if there is no growth

3.)if there is grow=this means your dealing with a gram-positive microbe

if there isn't growth=the microbe is gram-negative
EMB (Eosin Methylene Blue Agar)

1.)What is it testing for?

2.)What is a positive and negative result?

3.)Interpret the Results
1.)isolation of fecal coliforms and determine lactose fermenters

2.)positive result=metallic green or pinkish purple

negative result=colorless with growth or there is no growth at all

3.)Metallic green=strong acid production;microbe ferments lactose and or sucrose

pinkish purple=weaker fermenter;ferments little lactose

poor growth or no growth= microbe is a gram-postive(because fecal coliforms are gram-negatives only)

growth is colorless=microbe does not ferment lactose or sucrose ;no reaction
MAC (MacConkey Agar)

1.)What is it testing for?

2.)What is a positive and negative result?

3.)Interpret the Results
1.)isolate and differentiate members of the enterobacteriaceae based on the ablitiy to ferment lactose. Its to isolategram-negative microbes and to determine acid producing microbes.

2.)positive result=redish or pinkish
negative result=colorless;no or poor growth

3.)pink to red growth with or without bile precipitate ( which bile salts inhibit gram +'s)=microbe produces acid from a lactose fermentation= probable coliform

good growth=the microbe isn't inhibited by the bile salts or crystal violet=gram-negative microbe

growth is colorless=organism doesn't ferment lactose= non coliform

poor or no growth=organism is inhibited by the crystal violet or bile = gram-postive microbe
THIOGLYCOLLATE TUBES

1.)What is it testing for?

2.)What is a positive and negative result?

3.)Interpret the Results
1.)Depending on the growth pattern and whether oxgen is present or not. this test is generally associated with the cultivation of anaerobic and microaerophilic bacteria.

2.)positive result= pink with growth
negative results=colorless but has growth

3.)resazurin (an indicator) when oxidized=air is present and turns the liquid pink=oxygen is present

resazurin when reduced=air isnt present turns colorless=oxygen isn't present

if there is growth and turbid throughout= aerotolerant anaerobe

if there is no pink ring on top and growth on top and throughout the stab line=facultative anaerobe

a pink ring and growth just throughout the first half of the stab line= strict anaerobe

growth only on top without a pink ring= strict aerobic

pink ring with very minimal growth=microaerophile
THIOGLYCOLLATE TUBES

1.)What is it testing for?

2.)What is a positive and negative result?

3.)Interpret the Results
1.)Depending on the growth pattern and whether oxgen is present or not. this test is generally associated with the cultivation of anaerobic and microaerophilic bacteria.

2.)positive result= pink with growth
negative results=colorless but has growth

3.)resazurin (an indicator) when oxidized=air is present and turns the liquid pink=oxygen is present

resazurin when reduced=air isnt present turns colorless=oxygen isn't present

if there is growth and turbid throughout= aerotolerant anaerobe

if there is no pink ring on top and growth on top and throughout the stab line=facultative anaerobe

a pink ring and growth just throughout the first half of the stab line= strict anaerobe

growth only on top without a pink ring= strict aerobic

pink ring with very minimal growth=microaerophile
DEEP STABS

1.)What is it testing for?

2.)What is a positive and negative result?

3.)Interpret the Results
1.)the presences of growth in different locations according to the presences of oxygen or not

2.)positive results=strict anaerobic, facultatiive anaerobe, and strict aerobic

3.)strict anaerobe=see growth in lower regions of the medium

faculatative anaerobic=growth on top and throughout stab line can grow with or without oxygen

strict aerobic=grow at top only because they require oxygen for growth
DEEP STABS

1.)What is it testing for?

2.)What is a positive and negative result?

3.)Interpret the Results
1.)the presences of growth in different locations according to the presences of oxygen or not

2.)positive results=strict anaerobic, facultatiive anaerobe, and strict aerobic

3.)strict anaerobe=see growth in lower regions of the medium

faculatative anaerobic=growth on top and throughout stab line can grow with or without oxygen

strict aerobic=grow at top only because they require oxygen for growth
ANAEROBIC JAR

1.)What is it testing for?

2.)What is a positive and negative result?

3.)Interpret the Results
1.) to cultivate anaerobic and microaerophilic bacteria. This creates a CO2 enriched conditions.

2.)positive results=colorless
negative results=blue

3.) if blue is indicated on the strip=then air is still present in the jar and the conditions aren't right

if the strip is colorless= then there is no air present and the conditions are right. An anaerobic atomsphere exist,.
ANAEROBIC JAR

1.)What is it testing for?

2.)What is a positive and negative result?

3.)Interpret the Results
1.) to cultivate anaerobic and microaerophilic bacteria. This creates a CO2 enriched conditions.

2.)positive results=colorless
negative results=blue

3.) if blue is indicated on the strip=then air is still present in the jar and the conditions aren't right

if the strip is colorless= then there is no air present and the conditions are right. An anaerobic atomsphere exist,.
BLOOD AGAR PLATE

1.)What is it testing for?

2.)What is a positive and negative result?

3.)Interpret the Results
1.) If the microbe breaks down the red blood cells for nutrients

2.)positive result= yellow clearing or greenish

negative result= colorless

3.)Alpha-hemolysis= creates a greenish color which means a partial breakdown of the RBC's

Beta-hemolysis- yello and clearing means that there is a complete break down of the RBC's

gamma-hemolysis-there is growth but doesn't break down the RBC's
COAGULASE

1.)What is it testing for?

2.)What is a positive and negative result?

3.)Interpret the Results
to determine if the microbe has the coagulase enzyme that prevents the bacteria from phagocytosis by forming protective fibrin barriers a.k.a clots.
Tube- can test for bound and free coagulase enzymes
slide- can only test for bound coagulase

2.) positive results=
tube= solid
slide= clumping of cells

negative results=
tube=liquid
slide= no clumping

3.)if tube is solid and the slide is clumpy =plasma has been coagulated
if tube is liquid and the slide has no clumping= plasma hasn't been coagulated
MRVP

1.)What is it testing for?

2.)What is a positive and negative result?

3.)Interpret the Results
1.)MR (methyl Red) test is designed to detect microbes capable of performing a mixed acid fermentation which overcomes the phosphate buffer and lowers the Ph. these acids produced are stable.
VP (Voges-Proskauer) is designed for microbes that are able to ferment glucose but quickly convert their acid products to aectoin and 2.3-butanediol. Whenthe reagents are added they react with the guanidine nucli from the peptone to produce a red color which is a nuetral pH.

2.)MR positive result=red
negative result=yellow
VP positive result=red
negative result=copper ring on top with red on the bottom

3.) MR yellow result=microbe wasn't able to override the phosphate buffer and remained a neutral pH
MR red result= mixed acid fermentation. the microbe overrode the buffer and became a stable acid

PV red without copper ring result=the organism was able to ferment glucose and convert its acid end-products to acetoin once it reacted with the reagents.
BLOOD AGAR PLATE

1.)What is it testing for?

2.)What is a positive and negative result?

3.)Interpret the Results
1.) If the microbe breaks down the red blood cells for nutrients

2.)positive result= yellow clearing or greenish

negative result= colorless

3.)Alpha-hemolysis= creates a greenish color which means a partial breakdown of the RBC's

Beta-hemolysis- yello and clearing means that there is a complete break down of the RBC's

gamma-hemolysis-there is growth but doesn't break down the RBC's
CATALASE

1.)What is it testing for?

2.)What is a positive and negative result?

3.)Interpret the Results
1.) If the microbe can break down hydrogen peroxide and if they can they they produce the catalase enzyme.

2.)positive result=bubbles
negative result=no bubbles

3.) if bubbles are present=then the microbe produces those catalase enzymes which help break down hydrogen peroxied which is a lethal dose of oxygen and much be broken down so there isn't any free radicals
if this isn't bubbles presnt= then the microbe doesn't produce the enzyme and the microbe will die if it's a strict aerobic organism
COAGULASE

1.)What is it testing for?

2.)What is a positive and negative result?

3.)Interpret the Results
to determine if the microbe has the coagulase enzyme that prevents the bacteria from phagocytosis by forming protective fibrin barriers a.k.a clots.
Tube- can test for bound and free coagulase enzymes
slide- can only test for bound coagulase

2.) positive results=
tube= solid
slide= clumping of cells

negative results=
tube=liquid
slide= no clumping

3.)if tube is solid and the slide is clumpy =plasma has been coagulated
if tube is liquid and the slide has no clumping= plasma hasn't been coagulated
OXIDASE

1.)What is it testing for?

2.)What is a positive and negative result?

3.)Interpret the Results
to determine whether a microbe has the cytochrome C and if they do then they have an electron transport chain.The cytochrome C is the final electron transfer to the oxygen inside the cell. and therefore use respiration whether it be aerobically or facultative.

2.)positive result= turns purple within 20 seconds or less
negative result= its colorless or tunrs purple after 20 seconds.

3.)purple within 20 seconds= this indicates that the microbe has the cytochrome present

colorless/ purple after 20 seconds= the microbe doesn't have the cytocrome c and the air could be causing it to oxidize and result in a false positive.
MRVP

1.)What is it testing for?

2.)What is a positive and negative result?

3.)Interpret the Results
1.)MR (methyl Red) test is designed to detect microbes capable of performing a mixed acid fermentation which overcomes the phosphate buffer and lowers the Ph. these acids produced are stable.
VP (Voges-Proskauer) is designed for microbes that are able to ferment glucose but quickly convert their acid products to aectoin and 2.3-butanediol. Whenthe reagents are added they react with the guanidine nucli from the peptone to produce a red color which is a nuetral pH.

2.)MR positive result=red
negative result=yellow
VP positive result=red
negative result=copper ring on top with red on the bottom

3.) MR yellow result=microbe wasn't able to override the phosphate buffer and remained a neutral pH
MR red result= mixed acid fermentation. the microbe overrode the buffer and became a stable acid

PV red without copper ring result=the organism was able to ferment glucose and convert its acid end-products to acetoin once it reacted with the reagents.
O/F GLUCOSE

1.)What is it testing for?

2.)What is a positive and negative result?

3.)Interpret the Results
1.) To determine whether a microbe can ferment or oxidize the carbohydrate (glucose, lactose,sucrose,maltose,mannitol) or if they can do both. One tube will be layered with mineral oil to make an anaerobic enviroment and the other one will be not have the oil to make for an aerobic enviroment.

2.)poistive result=
sealed=green; unsealed= yellow of any amount

sealed=yellow throughout; unsealed=yellow throughout

sealed=slightly yellow @ top
unselaed=slightly yellow @ top

negative result=
sealed= green; unsealed= green

3.) S= green US=any amount of yellow= oxidation=O

S=yellow throughout ; US= yellow throughout= oxidation and fermentation or fermentation only= O-F or F

S= slightly yellow @ the top
US= slighty yellow at the top= oxidation and slow fermentation or slow fermentation only=O-F or F

S= green or blue US= green or blue= no sugar metabolism;microbe is nonsaccarolytic(can't break down sugars) and if the color is blue its from amino acid degradation=N
CATALASE

1.)What is it testing for?

2.)What is a positive and negative result?

3.)Interpret the Results
1.) If the microbe can break down hydrogen peroxide and if they can they they produce the catalase enzyme.

2.)positive result=bubbles
negative result=no bubbles

3.) if bubbles are present=then the microbe produces those catalase enzymes which help break down hydrogen peroxied which is a lethal dose of oxygen and much be broken down so there isn't any free radicals
if this isn't bubbles presnt= then the microbe doesn't produce the enzyme and the microbe will die if it's a strict aerobic organism
PR BROTH

1.)What is it testing for?

2.)What is a positive and negative result?

3.)Interpret the Results
1.) to determine microbe fermentation characteristics

2.)positive results=
yellow with bubble
yellow without bubble
negative result=
red without bubble
pink without bubble

3.)yellow with a bubble=indicates fermenation with acid and gas products

yellow without a bubble= fermentation with acid end products and no gas produced

red broth with no bubble= no fermentation

pink with no bubble= degradation of peptone and alkaline end products
OXIDASE

1.)What is it testing for?

2.)What is a positive and negative result?

3.)Interpret the Results
to determine whether a microbe has the cytochrome C and if they do then they have an electron transport chain.The cytochrome C is the final electron transfer to the oxygen inside the cell. and therefore use respiration whether it be aerobically or facultative.

2.)positive result= turns purple within 20 seconds or less
negative result= its colorless or tunrs purple after 20 seconds.

3.)purple within 20 seconds= this indicates that the microbe has the cytochrome present

colorless/ purple after 20 seconds= the microbe doesn't have the cytocrome c and the air could be causing it to oxidize and result in a false positive.
O/F GLUCOSE

1.)What is it testing for?

2.)What is a positive and negative result?

3.)Interpret the Results
1.) To determine whether a microbe can ferment or oxidize the carbohydrate (glucose, lactose,sucrose,maltose,mannitol) or if they can do both. One tube will be layered with mineral oil to make an anaerobic enviroment and the other one will be not have the oil to make for an aerobic enviroment.

2.)poistive result=
sealed=green; unsealed= yellow of any amount

sealed=yellow throughout; unsealed=yellow throughout

sealed=slightly yellow @ top
unselaed=slightly yellow @ top

negative result=
sealed= green; unsealed= green

3.) S= green US=any amount of yellow= oxidation=O

S=yellow throughout ; US= yellow throughout= oxidation and fermentation or fermentation only= O-F or F

S= slightly yellow @ the top
US= slighty yellow at the top= oxidation and slow fermentation or slow fermentation only=O-F or F

S= green or blue US= green or blue= no sugar metabolism;microbe is nonsaccarolytic(can't break down sugars) and if the color is blue its from amino acid degradation=N
PR BROTH

1.)What is it testing for?

2.)What is a positive and negative result?

3.)Interpret the Results
1.) to determine microbe fermentation characteristics

2.)positive results=
yellow with bubble
yellow without bubble
negative result=
red without bubble
pink without bubble

3.)yellow with a bubble=indicates fermenation with acid and gas products

yellow without a bubble= fermentation with acid end products and no gas produced

red broth with no bubble= no fermentation

pink with no bubble= degradation of peptone and alkaline end products