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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
phylogenetically related prokaryotes distinct from bacteria
archaea
phylogenetically related prokaryotes distinct from archaea
bacteria
an organism obtaining its energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds
chemolithotroph
an organism obtaining its energy from the oxidation of organic compounds
chemoorganotroph
a genetic element carrying genes essential to cell function
chromosome
the highest level of biological classification
domain
the process by which mitochondria and choloplasts originated from the descendants of bacteria
endosymbiosis
a cell having a membrane-bound nucleus and usually other organelles
eukaryote
an organism that grows optimally under one or more environmental extremes
extremophile
the complement of genes in an organism
genome
cell shape
morphology
the aggregated mass of DNA that constitutes the chromosome of prokaryotic cells (bacteria and archaea)
nucleoid
a membrane enclosed structure that contains the chromosomes in eukaryotic cells
nucleus
a unit membrane enclosed structure present in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells
organelle
and organism that obtains its energy from light
phototroph
the evolutionary relationship between organisms
phylogeny
an extrachromosomal genetic element nonessential for growth
plasmid
a cell that lacks a membrane enclosed nucleus and other organelles
prokaryote
a cytoplasmic particle that carries out the process of protein synthesis
ribosome
found mostly in cells of plants and microorganisms, these give structural strength to the cell
cell wall
examples of eukaryotic microorganisms
algae, fungi, protozoa
prokaryotic microorganisms
bacteria, archaea
a major class of microorganisms that are not cells, and have no metabolic activities of their own
viruses
contain their own genes but lack ribosomes
viruses
DNA is ___ in most prokaryotes because most only have a single chromosome
circular
most prokaryotes contain only a single copy of each gene and are therefore genetically ___
haploid
extrachromosomal DNA that typically contains genes that confer special properties
plasmids
eukaryotes typically contain two copies of each gene and are genetically ____
diploid
process in which two identical daughter cells are the result
mitosis
process whereby eukaryotic cells' genetic material is halved to form haploid gametes for sexual reproduction
meiosis
microorganisms that can only extract energy from ATP in the presence of oxygen
aerobes
high energy compound from which energy is obtained
ATP adenosine triphosphate
microorganisms that can only extract energy from ATP in the absence of oxygen
anaerobes
these types of microbial cells obtain their complement of necessary carbon nutrients from one or more organic compounds
heterotrophs
these microbial cells require only CO2 to get their necessary complement of carbon
autotrophs
largest division (phylum) of bacteria
proteobacteria
oxygenic (oxygen evolved from metabolism) phototrophs who are phylogenetic relatives of gram positive bacteria
cyanobacteria
a favorite energy source of many chemolithotrophic archaea
hydrogen gas
high heat lover (extremophile)
hyperthermophile
cold lover (extremophile)
psychrophile
low ph lover (extremophile)
acidophile
high ph lover (extremophile)
alkaliphile
high pressure lover (extremophile)
barophile
salt lover (extremophile)
halophile
leaf-like structures often found growing on rocks, trees, and other surfaces; example of microbial mutualism; consist of a fungas and a phototrophic partner (alga or cyanobacterium)
lichens
large double-stranded molecule that combines to form a mass called the nucleoid
bacterial chromosome