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241 Cards in this Set

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in 1717 mary montagu reported that in turkey
an old woman comes with a nutshell full of the matter of the best sort of small small pox and ansk what veins you please to have open
and puts the venom with needle into
variolation
old woman with a nutshell
full - small pox
which vein. stabs and infects
Edward Jenner
received variolation
physician
dairymaids discovery
to honor jenners work the vaccination is from the word
vacca- cow
coined by louis pastuer
diptheria vaccine
purified diptheria toxooid
every 10 years
menningococcal meningitis vaccine
purified polysacchararide from neisseria meningitis
pertussis vaccine
killed whole or acellular fragments of the pertussis
children prior to chool age
and for high risk adults
pneumonococcal pneumonia
purified polysaccharide. from streptococcus pneumonia
adults with certain chronic disease people over 65 children 2-23months
tetanus
purified tetanus toxoid
every 10 years
influenzae type b meningitis
polysaccharide from HIB conjugated with protein to enhance effectiveness
children prior to school
chlorination of drinking water
wiped out the diarrheal type infectious diseases

typhoid fever dystentery etc
once the major killer of infants and children
pool chlorination
prevention of microorganisms
the nasopharyngeal wash
microorganism contamination includes
hepatitis A and polio
advances leading to the conquest of infectious disease
treatment of sewage
development of chemotherapy
utilization of mass immunization protocols for children
chlorination of the drinking water
there is a process of compost where
microorganismal changes occur where there are changes in eating and changing
chrholination of the drinking water by public health wiped out the diarrheal-type infectious diseases these include
typhoid fever
dyssentery and others
once the major killer of infants and children
the major killer of infants in the 1800-1900
diarrheal pneumonial complex or enteric fevers
major leading causes of death in the USA population in order of severity in 1900
TB
heart attack
flu
pneumonia
diptheria
NOW the major diseases are
heart attack
cancer
accidents
kidney disease
influenza
HIB vaccine
this is the cause of meningitis in the infants of under 5 category
HIB vaccine
poolysaccharide from HIB conjugated with protein to enhance effectiveness
should be in children prior to school age
vaccine from the word
jenner and his cows
vacca - vaccine
by pasteur
jenner the field doctor
herd immunity
is where most of the population is already immune
influenza vaccine
an inactivated virus nasally administered vaccind with weakend virus
for the chronically ill
resp and over 65
also should be taken annually
measles vaccine
weakend virus
infants age 15 months
mumps vaccine
weakend virus
infants age 15 months
rubella vaccine
weakened virus for infants 15months or childbearing age mothers
chickenpox vaccine
weakend virus
infants under 1
poliomyelitis vaccine
killed virus for the exposure risks
rabies vaccine
killed virus
for those in contact with wildlife
hep b vaccine is
antigenic fragment of virus
health care workers
homsexual males
iv drug users
multiple sex partners
lasts 7 years
HEP A vaccine
inactivated virus for those traveling to the endemic areas and protecting contacts during outbrekes
lasts 10 years
smallpox vaccine
is the actual live vaccinia virus
only for certain healthcare personnel
and lasts from 3-5 years
attenuated whole agent vaccines
these are where they use living but weakened microbes
immunity occurs lifelong expecially with
viruses
booster shots make them 95 percent effective
examples of weakend vaccines are the
sabin polio
measles
mumps
MMR
where do attenuated viruses come from
they are fround from long deribved mutations accumuylated during a long term cultyure
the danger of these
is the back mutation making it turn into a potent killer.
schedule of childhood immunizations
HEP B if mother
Dip tet pert aka DTAP
hib IPV and PCV
all in the beginning
right before school
FLU
MMR
Varicella aka chicken pox
inactivated whole agent vaccines
these use microbes that have been killed usually by formalin or phenol
aka influenza polio cholera
Toxoids
inactivated toxins are vaccines directed at the toxins produced by a pathogen
subunit vaccines
these use only those fragments of a microorganism that best stimulate an immune response.
recombinant vaccines
the vaccine against hep b is a portion of the viral protein coat that is produced by a genetically engineered yeast
acellular vaccines
used for pertussis is where a subunit is used where it cannot reproduce int he recipient and contain little or no extraneous material and less side effects
conjugated vaccines have been debeloped for
poor immune response of children to vaccines based on capsular polysacchraids
done for the HIB
nucleic acid vaccines
DNA vaccines not for humans yet
these are the plasmids of DNA injected inoto muscle and the production of the protein encoded in the DNA
the gene gun
dna only effective until it is degraded
rna coudl replicate in the recipient
recombinant vaccines and DNA vaccines do not need a cell or animal host to grow the vaccine's microbe this
avoids a major problem with virus that so far have not veen grown in cell culture.
antigen immunity increses on the rise
shots are only periodically
in england there were complications with teh pennicillin and then children started to develop the
whooping cough in larger numbers
prokaryotes and eukaryotes have both
nucleic acids
proteins
lipids
carbohydrates
Prokaryotes
dna is not enclosed
prokaryotes
their dna is not associated with histones; other proteins are associated with the DNA
Prokaryotes
their cell walls almost always contain the complex polysaccharide peptidogligan
Prokaryotes
divide by binary fission dna is copied and the cell splits into two cells
vinary fission involves fewer structures and processes than eukiaryotic cell division
eukaryotes
dna is found in the cell's nucleus

separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear membrane
eukaryotes
their dna is consistently associated with chromosomal proteins called histones and with nonhistones
eukaryotes
membrane enclosed organelles
mitochondria
ER GC lysosomes and somtimes chloroplasts
eukaryotes
their cell walls are chemically simple
eukaryotes
divide by mitosis chromosomees replicate and an identical set is distributed into each of the 2 nuclei
division of cytoplasm as well identical cells created
Prokaryotes
bacteria and archaebacteria
Prokaryotes
most range from .2 to 2 micrometers
Prokaryotes
shapes include
coccus - berries
baccillus - little staffs
Symbiosis
two or more organisms living together in close proximity and in association
mutualism
tow or more organisms living together in close association and both benefet from this association
commensalism
thwo organisms living together in close association and only one organism benefits from this relationship. the other neither gains nor is harmed by its close proximity to the other organisms
close relationship only one benefits
synergism
an associative relationship whereby 2 organisms produce an effect which neither can produce alone.usually chemical in nature
2 organisms produce something. none can do by themselves
gnotobiotic
organisms that can live and function with no other biable organisms
gnotobiotic
formed by removing an animal fetus aseptically. sterile completely from birth. food and living area.
gnotobiotic animals
live longer and grow normally
normal earth environment in which people animals and plants live with normally occurring microbes is
not the ideal environment for a healthy existence.
mutualism where
both organisms benefit from the association
Runimant nutrition.
ruminants cows sheep large bodied animals eat grass
chewed grass is digested in the fore gut rumen by bacteria. what happens when you kill this
no digestion of cellulose
who has a hindgut
horse
kangaroo
rabbit
DIGESTION OF CELLULOSE
STEPS
1CHEW
DIGESTION OF CELLULOSE
STEPS
2GROUND UP
DIGESTION OF CELLULOSE
STEPS
3 CELLULASE WORKS ON THE CELLULOSE BECAUSE RUMINANTS
DIGESTION OF CELLULOSE
STEPS
4 digestion by the bacteria gives off H2 and CO2 as by products
DIGESTION OF CELLULOSE
STEPS
glucose is converted into fatty acids
acetic acids
propionic acids
and butyric acids.
DIGESTION OF CELLULOSE
STEPS
H2 and Co2 go through methanogeniss an archaebacterial process and get converted into the methane gas
DIGESTION OF CELLULOSE
STEPS
methane gas expelled by belching
methane is alot more dangerous to the environment than ozone.
true
ruminants can or cannot be used in gnotobiotic experiments
CANNOT since they need bacteria for digestion.
This wiped out the diarrheal type infections
CHLORINATION OF DRINKING WATER
such as typhoid fever
dysentary
peptidoglycan layer in cell walls act as a
backbone for rigidity
this peptidoglycan layer is only found in
PRO PRO PRO karyotes
this compound serves as the monomer used for the synthesis of volutin inclusions
phosphate or pyrophosphate
volutin is a food reserve granule for bacteria
inclusions
reserve depositsts
Metachromatic Granules
volutin
stain red from blue dyes
phlyphosphate- ATP
Polysacchraide
glycogen and starch
iodine
glycogen - reddish brown
starch - blue
Sulfur
derive energy by oxidizing
Carboxysomesribulose
1,5diphosphate carboxylase
use that CO2 as their sole source of carbon require this enzyme for carbon dioxide fixation
Gas Vacuoles
aquatic prokaryotes
cyanobacteria
anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria
halobacteria
gas vesicles
hollow cylinders
covered by protein
buoyant dependent
magnetosomes
inclusions of iron oxide
acts like magnets
mnay use to move downward until suitable attachment site found
protect the cell against Hydrogen peroxide accumulation
Leptospirosis
Bacterial
leptospirosis
Weil's Disease
Leprosy
Bacterial
Hansen's disease
Tularemia
bacterial
Puerperal fever
organisms on hands of doctors passed onto babies during child birth
streptoccus pyogenes
Erysipelas
Massive skin infections
Streptococcus pyogenes
Septic Sore
Strep Throat
airborne respiratory fomite

erythogenic toxin excreted by organism to attack RBC
Streptococcus pyogenes
mycoplasma pneumonia
airborne respiratory fomites
cats atypical pneumonia
PPLO
Rheumatic Fever
airborne respiratory
chronic strep throat

streptococcus pyogenes
meningitis
bacterial
respiratory airborne fomite
whooping cough
bacterial
airborne respiratory fomites
legionnaires disease
bacterial
airborne respiratory fomites
pneumonia
bacterial
airborne respiratory fomites
tuberculosis
airborne respiratory fomites
mycobacterium tuberculosis
diptheria
bacterial
airborne respiratory fomites
corynebacterium diptheria
antimicrobial agent : antitoxin

secondary agent: Erythromycin
penicillin G

Klebs Loeffler bacillus
Brucellosis
bacterial
Bang's Disease
Tuberculosis milk
can go through the food or waterborne
listeriosis
milk
food or water borne
staphylcoccal food poisoning
staph food bacterial poisoning

food or waterborne
Amebic Dysentery
Amebiasis food or water borne
botulism
food poisoning
food waterborne
antimicrobial agent
antitoxin survivor
enteric intoxications
cholera
bacterial food or water borne
undulant fever
brucellosis
in food or waterborne
typhoid fever
food or water borne
two types
Para typhoid fever
food waterborne bacterial
dysentery bacillans
bacterail food and waterborne
syphillis
STD
Gonorrhea
bacterial STD
crancroid
STD bacterial
gas gangrene
bacterial
ROI trauma contact
complications with diabetes
antimicrobial agent
surgical debriclement remove dead tissue
penicillin G and hyperbaric oxygen treatment.
tetanus
trauma contact
must remove infected tissue
bacterial
tetracycline
antrax
trauma contact.
can be soil or bite
cutaneous
plague
insect flea and arthropod bitgesTularemia
Tularemia
insect flea and arthropod bitgesTularemia
lyme disease
insect flea and arthropod bitgesTularemia
malaria
arthropod borne

anophiles mosquito anopheles
susceptibel to children. . . plasmodium falciparum
trypanosomiasi
tse tse fly
arthropod borne protozoan class
American reduviid kissing bug
leishmaniasis sand flies
sleeping sickness
lymphogranuloma venerum
chlamydial disease
LVPT
STD
prokaryotes
psittacosis
parrot fever
chlamydial LVPT psittacosis
airborne fomite and respiratory
prokaryotes
trachoma
chlamydial LVPT
general contact
contagious eye disease vinereal
coagulase teset
if its mrSA cells are agglutinated with the coagulent reagent then test is positive

S aureus strain will be pathogenic
septicemia
blood infection.
serological tests for syphillis
wassermann test
tpcf test
vdrl test
wassermann tests
TPCF test
VDRL test
reveals active previous infection

blood tests designed for the second degree syphillis treat with an antibiotic spirochaetes migrate to body spleen leading to second degree
complement fixation
best test need expert technology FTA and TOH teset used as well. accurate for viral diseases
third degree syphillis:
spirochaetes go to the brain and spinal cord - no treatmment
midal test
used for typhoid fever diagnosis

typhoid bacilli aggglutinated with sick patients serum

a common enteric disease in the past
weil felix test
used for ricketsial diseases
sick patient serum aggluytinate specific proteus strains used in test
for those typhus RMSfever Q fever.
Streptococcus Pyogenes

group A beta hemolytic GAS
spherical gram positive bacteria that grows in long chains
group
complete disrupt RBC
A antigen on its cell walls beta hemolysis when cultures on the agar

the release of hemoglobin
what is a prokaryote
microscopic organisms of the kingdom prokaryote
found every where in habitants of most environments
defined by cellular properties unicellular
cyanobacteria -
bacteria domain
archaebacteria
archae domain
prokaryotes
rigid cell walls some have cellular filamentous entities or mycellial forms
exist as single free living cells in simple association
in the .2 to 10 micrometer
prokaryotes
asexual most divide by binary fission cloning and do not produce gametes nor form sex cells
lack meiotic reduction division and mitotic process
prokaryotes
lack nuclear membrane
they have no true nucleus
single chromosome of pure double stranded DNA fibril
prokaryotes
they aint got no histone type proteins
cytoplasmic sub cellular membraneus organelles
the prokaryotes
they come out in the 70's show
70 s ribosomes nutrients
molecular components
organic/inorganic
what do the prokaryotes have
cytoplasmic sub cellular membraneous organelles
mitochondria chloroplasts ER Golgi and lysosomes
when the PRokaryotes actually do reproduce they go bout
binarry fission
budding
bacteria conjugation prokaryotes
leasts to lateral genen transfers still not sexual
prokaryotes are
somatic and haploid
bacterial taxonomy and nomenclature
classification and identification
classification
form of organization that divides organisms into 2 taxonomic groups
based on phenotypic similarities and differences
identification
determine if the organism has been described classified is new or previously identified.
can it be placed into one of already established accepted
identification
named according to rules of nomenclature

placed into taxon within existing recognized classification system
advances leading to the conquest of infectious diseases
chlorinate the drinking water
treatment of sewage
development of chemotherapy
utilization of mass immunization protocols for children
nomenclature.
process of naming new bacterial isolate microorganisms
making sure no official document recog by all microbiologists
binomial nomenclature.
latin
genus name always capitalized
species never capitalized
binomial nomenclature should reflect
microscopic morphology
physiological function
cultural characteristics
diseased caused by organism
diplococcus pneumonia
cocci in pairs/causal agent for pneumonia infects lungs and causes influenza kills 50k a year
staph aureus
cocci in grape like clusters. golden color colonies
streptococcus pyogenes
cocci in chains forming pus
strept throat scarlet fever
micrococcus roseus
individual cocci
red colored colonies
lactobacillus acidophilus
rod shaped
por produce lactic acid
when grown in milk
lactic acid fermentation. milk sugar
bacillus anthracis
rod shaped aerobic spore former causes anthrax based on the bacteria plasmid
corynebacterium diptheria
shaped organism causing diptheria.
acetobacter aceti.
rod shaped organisms forming acettic acid during grape sugar fermentation.
propionibacterium shermanii
rod shaped bacterium producing propionic acid thru fermentation

SWISS cheese
clostridium butylicum
anaerobic rod shaped spore former produces butyric acid during fermentation.
streptococcus lactis.
cocci in chains produce lactic acid from breakdown of milk sugar lactose yogurt buttermilk.
what are the 3 variations of MYCOBACTERIUM tuberculosis
HUMANS
COWS and
BIRDS
mycobacterium tuberculosis var avium
the var means variety can use in place type strain subspecies.
streptococcus spp.
that means that multiple and unknown species of bacteria belonging to the genus streptococcus
streptococcus sp
single isolate specie of pure culture isolate of genus streptococcus
kingdom
animalia
prokaryotes
phylum division
vertebrata
bacteria
class
mamalia
gram negative facultative
order
carnivore
family
dog
enterobacteriaceae
tribe
X
X
genus
canis
escheria
species
familiaris
coli
variant
dashsund
strain K12
so whos older prokaryotes or eukaryotes
PROKARYOTES 2-3.8 billion years ago
more than
Eukaryotes 3-1 billion years ago
bacteria eubacteria via endosymbiosis
formed the mitocondria
eukaryotes
engulf into the protozoa
archeabacteria
time
fungi yeast mold mushrooms
cyanobacteria
endosymbiosis form/ engulf the chloroplasts
algae plants seaweed
fungi
organic nutrients in algae
heterotrophs
planta
photosynthetic non motile
animalia
heterotrophs
motile
viroids
smallest infection agents
small circular
higly structured single stranded RNA molecule
viroids
lack protein coat capsid
NO mRNA activity
viroids
replicate autonomously
induce disease in a wide variety of plant species
viroids
obligate parasites of the cells transcriptional machinery
genetic information for viroid replication in circular stranded rnA to be squeezed
viroids
forms double stranded linear nucleotide segment
viroids
highly base paired rod like conformation
in vitro
viroidsr
resistant to ribonuclease digestion
highly cooperative thermal denaturation profile. unusual high ordered structure..
viroids
potato spindle tuber disease.1923
infectious contagious spread under field
viroids
Shulz and folsom grouped with knwon degenerative potato diseases
Deiner 1971 differences in diseases citrus viroid IV cucumber pale friut
tomato apical stunt
lichens
symbiotic entitity between fungus and algae blue green algae
2 organisms interact to form single thallus plant nodule . wart like structure.
lichens
no leaf
no root
unusual
definitive shape
fungal and algal symbiotic relationship is not clear
lichens
symbiosis evolution morphological or structural fungal modifications occured for idyllic adaptation with algae
algae; food
fungus; protection
in tropics and temperate zones
archaebacteria
terestrial and aquatic microbes
can be aerobic most are anaerobes
archaebacteria
gram stain vary because they LCK peptidoglycan layer. cell wall layer contains MURAMIC ACIED
MURAMIC ACID
LACK PEP LAYER
shapes of the archaebacteria
Spherical
Spiral
Rod shaped
Unicellular and multicellular
in filaments or aggregates
measurements individual .10.15um

multiply by binary fission budding constriction fragmentation can change and vary in color
archaebacteria
cellular lipids possess ether bonds
eubacteria ester bonds
lack peptidoglycan layer with muramic acid
WHOS GOT ETHER
NAS and ARCHE
WHOS GOT ESTER
EU GOT ESTER
Passive immunity
short term duration 2-3 months

antibodies administered directly into host
not produced by the host
passive can be
natural or acquired.

natural transferred to newborn by placental blood mother's first milk colostrum
acquired injection of antibodies directly or injection of immune serum
gamma globulin shot.
MUMPS and MEASES if comp use that GammaGl shot
active immunity
long term duration sometimes for life

antibodies produced by exposure to antigen
natural
you get exposed....fo LIFE essay

acquired artificial
if it si acquired active immunity
antifgen is ingected to induce antibody formation
DPT immunity injection
oral polio
booster shots
prokaryotes
eubacteria
cyanobacteria
archaebacteria
first life forms on earth
documented prokaryotes
prokaryotes
first on earth
lateral gene transfer
heterotrophes auto photo
archaebacteria
these are a few of my favorite things
prokaryotes
lateral gene transfer - chief molecular innovators
genetic element transfer between cells trade plasma
prokaryotes
hetero
auto
photo
theses are
bacteria modes diplay unique metabolic diversity
archaebacteria
range of metabolic process
under the prokaryote category
range of metabolic processes for cellular function still remain various and unusual ecological riches far exceed those found in eukaryotic world
PRIONS
PROTEINACEOUS infection agents
prions
kuru in humans
tribal cannabalistic practices in new ginnea
prions
creutzfeldt jakob disease in humans
gerstmann straussler syndrome GSS in humans
fatal familial insomnia
prions
inherited and sporadic forms as spongiform encephalopaties
TSE transmitable spong en
at is Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies?
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), also known as prion diseases, are a group of rare degenerative brain disorders characterized by tiny holes that give the brain a "spongy" appearance. These holes can be seen when brain tissue is viewed under a microscope.
prions
confined to the nervous system
brain damage from loss of neurons due to spongiform degeneration
absence of detectable immune response in affected hosts

this can limits blood tests
incubation period long and death follows
prions disease in animal
scapie 1730 in sheep
wobbly
seizures
paralysis
blindness
death
scapie
not transmissable to man by eating mutton
speceis specific
MAD COW disease
prions
bovine spongiform dencephalopathy
TME transmissable mink encephalopathy
PRION
MINK
chronic wasting
in mule deer and elk
PRION background
smallest infectious agent known

composed of small protein
no DNA RNA but able to self replicate in infected tissue
PRION background
TSE transmissable spongiform encephalopaties

arise spontaneously in animal
may occur in single or multiple species
PRION background
damage brain tissue

forming multible vacuoles appears as sponge
amyloid fibrils found in diseased brain tissue
PRION background
untreatable long latency period

demetia psychosis
death
infetion vs intozication
infection contaminated
results in infection; bacterial growth in intestine
intoxication
organism grown in food product
producing a toxin
poinsin aka clostridium botulism
men and women
hear disease
cancer
stroke
top 3
men
accidents
copd
pneumonia
hiv
diabetes
suicide
homicide
women
pneumonia
diabetes
accidents
alzheimers
kidney disease
sepsis