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47 Cards in this Set

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Prokaryotes include:
bacteria
archaea
Eukaryotes include:
plants
algae
animals
fungi
protozoa
Prokaryotic characteristics:
DNA
no histones
no organelles
plasma membrane
peptidoglycan cell wall
binary fission
Eukaryotic characteristics:
paired chromosomes-paired separte from cytoplasm
histones
organelles
plasma membrane
polysacchride cell walls
mitosis/meosis/mitotic spindles
Most bacteria are _____, or genetically similar to their parent cell
monomprphic
Few bacterica are ____, or genetically different from the parent cell.
pleomorphic
If substance is neatly organized and firm, it is called a ___.
capsule
functions of a glycocalyx (sugar coat) on external cell wall
-protection
-provide nutrients/prevent dehydration and nutrient loss
-extracellular polysaccharide allows for attachment
-capsules prevent phagocytosis
Bacteria without flagella are called ____.
atrichous
flagella arrangement:
monotrichous
one on one end
flagella arragement:
amphitrichous
two or more at one or both ends
flagella arragement:
peritrichous
over entire cell
flagella arragement:
lophotrichous
multiple on one end
movement towards food or away from stimuli or harmful material
taxis
moving away from chemicals
chemotaxis
moving away from light
phototaxis
moving away from oxygen
aerotaxis
moving towards or away from the earth's pole
magnetotaxis
spirochetes move my means of ___
axial filaments or endoflagella
_____ are protein appenadages that allow for attachement.
Fimbrae
____ are longer than fimbraie, and are used to transfer DNA from one cell to another during conjugation.
pili
____ consists of repeating subunits of NAG and NAM linked by polypeptide and cross-bridge amino acids.
peptidoglycan
Gram positive cell walls
-thick peptidoglycan
-teichoic acids
-in acid-fast cells, contains mycolic acid
gram negative cell walls
-thin peptidoglycan
-no teichoic acids
-outer membrane
-lipopolysaccharides
teichoic acids (two classes)
-lipoteichoic acid- links to plasma membrance, covers peptidoglycan layer
-wall teichoic acid- links peptidoglycan to layer
simple diffusion
movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
facilitative diffusion
solute combines with a transporter protein in the membrane
active transport
requires ATP- movement of solutes from low to high concentration
osmosis
movement of water across selective permeable membrane from high water concentration to low water concentration
isotonic solution
no net movement of water
hypotonic solution
water moves into cell, may cause cell to burst
hypertonic solution
water moves out of cell, may cause cell to shrink
cytoplasm
substance inside plasma membrane- 80% water, where chemical reactions occur
nuclear area
-bacterial chromosomes
-DNA not in membrane
-one/several identical chromosomes present
-some have circular double stranded DNA (PLASMID)
-replicate independently
-may carry 4-5 genes for antibiotic reistance, toxin production, enzyme production
Ribosomes
-for protein synthesis
-made of ribosomal protein & ribosomal RNA
-pro=70S, eukary=80S
Antibiotica inhibit function of ____ ribosome functions.
prokaryotic
materials stored for nutrients as macromolecules; utilized when deficient
inclusions
called volutin; stained red; phosphate reserves to make ATP
metachromatic granules
store glycogen and starch
polysaccharide granules
stores lipids
lipid inclusions
store sulfur
sulfur inclusions
contain enzyme ribulose 1,5-diphosphate carboxylase for CO2 fixation, photosynthesis
carboxysomes
store air for buoyancy
gas vacuoles
iron oxide (destroys H2O2) assist bacteria to move down until a suitable attachment site is reached
magentosomes
the process of endospore formation
sporulation/sporogenesis
resistant to desiccation, heat, freezing, toxic chemicals; unique cell type that develop from actively multiplying cells
endospores
return to vegetative state
germination