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43 Cards in this Set

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The fundamental unit of living matter
Cell
The fluid portion of the cell, bounded by the cell membrane but excluding the nucleus (if present)
cytoplasm
the hereditary material of cells and some viruses
DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid
the study of organisms in their natural environments
ecology
organisms plus their nonliving environment
ecosystem
a method for isolating microorganisms from nature using specific culture media and incubation conditions
enrichment culture
protein catalysts that function to speed up chemical reactions
enzymes
change in a line of descent over time leading to the production of new species or varieties within a species
evolution
the location in an environment where a microbial population resides
habitat
all biochemical reactions in a cell
metabolism
a microscopic organism consisting of a single cell or cell cluster, including viruses
microorganism
a disease-causing microorganism
pathogen
a cell lacking a nucleus and other organelles
prokaryote
a culture containing a single type of microorganism
pure culture
involved in protein synthesis as messenger __, transfer __, and ribosomal __
ribonucleic acid - RNA
the hypothesis that living organisms can originate from nonliving matter
spontaneous generation
absence of all living organisms and viruses
sterile
the study of microorganisms including viruses
microbiology
fundamental unit of life
cell
the barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the outside
plasma membrane
where the genetic information, DNA, needed to make more cells is stored
nucleus (eukaryotic cells)/nucleoid (prokaryotic cells)
the four chemical components of cells, collectively called macromolecules.
proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, polysaccharides
characteristics of living things (6)
metabolism
reproduction (growth)
differentiation
communication
movement
evolution
composed of groups of related cells, generally derived by successive cell divisions from a single parent cell
populations
populations of cells living and interacting with other populations of cells
microbial communities
A coding function of the cell - DNA undergoes ___ to yield more DNA
replication
a coding function of the cell - DNA undergoes ___ to yield RNA
transcription
a coding function of the cell - RNA undergoes ___ to yield protein
translation
genetic information from DNA + protein + ATP + precursors of macromolectules = ___
reproduction (growth)
living organisms together with all the physical and chemical constituents of their environment constitute an
ecosystem
rather small cells that lack a nucleus and also called bacteria; consitute a major portion of biomass on the earth
prokaryotes
plant group which lives in close association with bacteria and forms nodules on roots
legumes
energy stored in living organsims
biomass
special digestive organ in some farm animals that contain microorganisms to carry out digestion
rumen
discipline of science concerned with artificial manipulation of genes and their products.
genetic engineering
use of microorganisms in large scale industrial processes
biotechnology
described fruiting structures of molds ~1664
Robert Hooke
first person to see microorganisms in detail ~1684, utilized a crude self-made microscope to see things as small as bacteria
Leeuwnhoek
credited w/ founding of bacteriology, discovered genus bacillus
Ferdinand Cohn
opponent of spontaneous generation, used experiments with bend flask to disprove
Pasteur
developed germ theory of disease and four postulates of proving a specific microorganism causes a specific disease
Koch
formulated concept of enrichment culture, described basic tenets of virology, isolated pure cultures of nitrogen-fixing bacteria
beijerinck
isolated pure cultures of nitrifying bacteria clearly showing process of nitrification
winogradsky