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37 Cards in this Set

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What are all of the genetic elements of an organism called?
Genome
How do Eukaryotic chromosomes differ from Prokaryotic?
Eukaryotes have telomeres (special DNA sequences) and centromeres(used in cell division), they are haploid, double stranded, and linear.
What is gene density related to?
Size and and number of replications
What type of cell would you expect to find high numbers of gene repeats?
Eukaryotic
What are self replicating extra chromosomal elements?
Plasmids
Pro

Chromosome
Extremely long, usually circular double stranded DNA molecule
Pro

Plasmid
Typically a relatively short, usually circular, double stranded DNA molecule which is extrachromosomal
Pro

Viral Genome
Single-or double stranded DNA or RNA molecule
Pro

Transposable Element
Double stranded DNA molecule always found within another DNA molecule
Euk

Chromosome
Extremely long, linear, double stranded DNA molecule
Euk

Plasmid (very rare)
Typically a relatively short circular or linear double stranded DNA molecule which is extrachromosomal
Euk

Mitochondrion or Chloroplast
Intermediate length DNA molecules, usually circular
Euk

Viral Genome
Single or double stranded DNA or RNA molecules
Euk

Transposable Element
Double stranded DNA molecule always found within another DNA molecule
These are mobile genetic elements that can move from one place on the chromosome to another.
Transposbale Elements
What are the 3 types of transposable elements on Bacteria
insertion sequences, transposons, and some transposable viruses
What does the addition of nucleotides to the growing chain require?
3'-hydroxyl
DNA replication always procedes in what direction?
5' phosphate of incoming nucleotide attached to 3' hydroxyl
What does DNAP require?
A primer
What two things catalyze DNA synthesis?
DNAP and dNTP
What is semiconservative?
Both strands are replicated
and both serve as templates
How many replications fork are there in E. coli what is it called and what does this stucture resemble?
2 replication forks, bidirectional replication, theta structure
Origin of replication
Contains a number of short sequences elements(~300) bp that are recognized by the proteins of the initiation complex
Topoisomerases
These are needed to keep the DNA from getting overwound and to allow resolution of the daughter molecules
DNAP
Carries out DNA synthesis
DNAP III
Main processive enzyme and synthesis of leading AND lagging strands
DNAP I
Responisble for removing the RNA primer on the Lagging strand and also participates in DNA repair processes
This requires a template and a primer with 3' OH
DNAP III
Exonuclease
Cleves nucleotide to put in correct one depolymerizes DNA
This DNAP has 3'-5' exonuclease activity
DNAP III
This enzyme has 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activity
DNAP I
DNA helicases
Bind at the replication fork and sperate DNA strands.
Leading strand
Nucleotides are added to the 3'OH of the growing strand as directed by the template strand.
Primase
DNA dependent RNA polymerase
Lagging strand
Made discontinuously in steps.
The ends of eukaryotic chromosomes are maintained by the addition of small repeats by and enzyme containing an RNA strand that acts as a template is called?
Telomerase
DNA Ligase
forms bonds to link chains closes phosphodiester backbone