Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/62

Click to flip

62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
WHAT ARE THE (3) BASIC NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR MICROBIAL GROWTH
SOURCE OF NUTRIENTS
SOURCE OF ENERGY
HYDROGEN ATOMS THAT DONATE ELECTRONS
ONE OF THE 3BASIC NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS IS "SOURCE OF NUTRIENTS" ....WHAT DOES THAT MEAN
THE ELEMENTS NEEDED AS BUILDING BLOCKS FOR BIOSYNTHESIS OF NEW CELL COMPONENTS
ELEMENTS REQUIRED IN LARGE AMOUNTS BY THE CELL ( WHEN DISCUSSING SOURCE OF NUTRIENTS)
MACROELEMENTS
WHAT PERCENT OF DRY WEIGHT (WATER TAKEN AWAY) DO MACROELEMENTS MAKE UP
~95%
WHAT ARE THE (9) MACROELEMENTS
C H N O P Ka Fe S Mg
DEFINE MICROELEMENTS
REQUIRES FOR GROWTH BUT ONLY IN TINY AMOUNTS
WHAT ARE THE 5 MICROELEMENTS
COPPER COBALT NICKEL ZINC MANGANESE
WHAT ARE THE (2) STRATEGIES USED TO SATISFY CARBON/NUTRIENTS REQUIREMENT
AUTOTROPH
HETEROTROPH
LITERAL MEANING OF AUTOTROPH
"SELF FED"
DEFINE THE LITERAL MEANING OF HETEROTROPH
"MIXED FED"
WHAT KINDS OF COMPOUNDS DO HETEROTROPHS(USED AS STRATEGY FOR CARBON/NUTRIENTS REQ) USE
HETEROTROPHS USE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS TO SATISFY CARBON NUTRIENTS REQ
WHAT DO AUTOTROPHS USE AS THE SOLE SOURCE OF CARBON
MICROBES USE CARBON DIOXIDE AS THE SOLE SOURCE OF CARBON
DEFINE ENERGY
CAPACITY TO DO WORK
(3) KINDS OF WORK THAT A CELL DOES
BIOSYNTHESIS OF CELL COMPONENTS
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
MOTILITY
WHAT ARE THE (4) ORGANIC COMPOUNDS THAT HETEROTROPHS USE
GLUCOSE
AMINO ACIDS
PURINES
PYRIMIDINES
WHAT DO CELLS USE AS CURRENCY TO PAY FOR WORK
CELLS USE ATP AS CURRENCY
LIST THE RXN WHEN ATP IS USED TO PAY FOR WORK
ATP---+Pi----+ ENERGY TO DO WORK
NOTE: THE CELL CAN'T DO ANY WORK W/OUT $ OR ATP
MONEY IS THE SAME AS ATP
TO DO WORK...CELLS MUST FIRST MAKE ATP----HOW
ADP + Pi + energy------ATP
WHAT ARE THE TWO STRATEGIES TO MAKE ATP
PHOTOTROPH
chemotroph
LITERAL MEANING OF PHOTOTROPH
"LIGHT FED"
DEFINE PHOTOTROPH
MICROBES THAT USE SUNLIGHT IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS....ONE OF THE STRATEGIES CELLS USE TO MAKE ATP
DEFINE THE CHEMICAL EQUATION OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS
H2O + CO2 + SUNLIGHT---->C6 H12 O6+ O2 + A LITTLE ATP
HOW IS MOST OF THE ENERGY FROM SUNLIGHT STORED
ENERGY FROM SUNLIGHT IS NOW STORED AS CHEMICAL ENERGY IN BONDS OF GLUCOSE
CELLS MUST CREATE __________ TO "PAY" FOR WORK
ATP
WHAT IS THE SECOND STRATEGY FOR CREATING ENERGY
CHEMOTROPH
LITERAL MEANING OF CHEMOTROPH
"CHEMICAL FED"
DEFINE CHEMOTROPH
MICROBES USE CHEMICAL ENERGY IN BONDS OF ORGANIC OR INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
LIST THE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS RELATED TO CHEMOTROPHS
GLUCOSE
AMINO ACIDS
PURINES
PYRIMIDINES
LIST THE INORGANIC COMPOUND RELATED TO CHEMOTROPHS
AMMONIA
WHAT ARE THE THREE MECHANISMS TO CREATE ATP
AEROBIC RESPIRATION
ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION
FERMENTATION
WHAT CREATES THE MOST ATP OF THE (3) MECHANISMS
AEROBIC ( O2 ) RESPIRATION CREATES THE MOST ATP
(4) STEPS OF AEROBIC (OXYGEN) RESPIRATION
CREATES THE MOST ATP
FASTEST GROWER
OXYGEN SERVES AS THE FINAL ELECTRON ACCEPTOR
OXYGEN IS THEN REDUCED TO WATER
LITERAL MEANING OF ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION
NO OXYGEN
DESCRIBE ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION....( MECHANISM TO CREATE ATP)
---LESS ATP CREATED THAN AEROBIC
---SLOWER GROWTH THAN AEROBIC
---USES NON OXYGEN, INORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS THE FINAL ELECTRON ACCEPTOR
LIST THE NON OXYGEN, INORGANIC COMPOUNDS ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION USES AS THE FINAL ELECTRON ACCEPTOR
NITRATE---->NITRITE
SULFATE---->HYDROGEN SULFIDE
CARBONATE-->METHANE
------> = REDUCED TO
DEFINE THE STEPS OF FERMINTATION
---LEAST ATP CREATED
---SLOWEST GROWTH
---USES AN ORGANIC COMPOUND AS THE FINAL ELECTRON ACCEPTOR
GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF AN ORGANIC COMPOUND THAT IS USED IN FERMINTATION
PYRUVATE----->LACTID ACID
THREE MECANISMS ARE USED TO CREATE ATP.... WHAT HAPPENS TO ELECTRONS IN ALL THREE
e- ARE "PASSED" FROM COMPOUND TO COMPOUND, W/ EACH PASS SM. BITS OF ENERGY ARE GIVEN OFF
IN ALL 3 MECHANISMS TO CREATE ATP...WHAT EQUATION IS MADE
ADP + Pi--------->ATP
HOW ARE LIVING CELLS LIKE BATTERIES
AS e- FLOW, ENERGY GIVEN OFF CREATES LIGHT
WHY DO BATTERIES EVENTUALLY DIE
1)RUN OUT OF e- TO FLOW
2 e- NEUTRALIZE
+ SIDE OF BATTERY, NO MORE + ATTRACTION FOR e-
3) SOURCE OF e- OR H ATOMS
HOW ARE CELLS DYING RELATED TO CELLS
CELLS CAN'T DIE, SO THE LAST e- ACCEPTOR COMES INTO PLAY
02---->H2O
NITRATE----->NITRITE
PYRUVITE---->LACTIC ACID
THERE ARE 2 STRATEGIES FOR "SOURCE OF e- OR H ATOMS...WHAT ARE THEY
ORGANOTROPH
LITHOTROPH
LITERAL MEANING OF ORGANOTROPH
"ORGANIC FED"
WHAT DO ORGANOTROPHS USE TO SUPPLY e-....GIVE 4 EXAMPLES
ORGANOTROPHS USE AN ORGANIC COMPOUND TO SUPPLY e-

GLUCOSE
AMINO ACIDS
PURINES
PYRIMIDINES
LITERAL MEANING OF LITHOTROPH
"STONE FED OR ROCK FED"
WHAT DO LITHOTROPHS USE AS THERE SOURCE OF e-
LITHOTROPHS USE REDUCED, INORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS THERE SOURCE OF e-
NITRITE
HYDROGEN SULFIDE
LITERAL MEANING OF PHOTOTROPHS
"FIRST FED"
LITERAL MEANING OF PHOTOTROPHS
"FIRST FED"
SOME MICROBES CANT SYNTHESIZE EVERYTHING THEY NEED FOR GROWTH AND MUST OBTAIN THESE COMPOUNDS PRE-MADE FROM THE ENVIRONMENT =
AUXOTROPH
LITERAL MEANING OF AUXOTROPH
"FED TO GROW"
WHAT IS NECESSARY FOR MICROBES BEING ABLE TO SYNTHESIZE EVERYTHING THEY NEED FOR GROWTH
THE (3) BASIC NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS ARE NECESSARY
WHEN MICROBES HAVE EVERYTHING ( 3) BASIC NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS AVAIL FOR GROWTH,,,THEY ARE CALLED ____________-
PROTOTROPHS
LITERAL MEANING OF "AUXOTROPH"
"FED TO GROW"
COMPOUNDS REQUIRED BY AUXOTROPHS ( FED TO GROW) ARE CALLED
GROWTH FACTORS
LIST (4) EXAMPLES OF GROWTH FACTORS
VITAMINS, AMINO ACIDS, PURINES OR PYRIMIDINES
IN THE LAB,,,,HOW CAN PROTOTROPHS BE GROWN
IN THE LAB...PROTOTROPHS CAN BE GROWN ON A MINIMAL MEDIUM
WHAT IS A MINIMUL MEDIUM
(3) BASIC NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS
IN THE LAB....HOW ARE AUXOTROPHS GROWN
IN THE LAB...AUXOTROPHS ARE GROWN ON AN ENRICHED MEDIUM
DEFINE AN ENRICHED MEDIUM
(3) BASIC NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS + GROWTH FACTORS
NO GROWTH FACTORS ( ON AN ENRICHED MEDIUM ) MEANS WHAT
NO GROWTH