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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the sum of all chemica reactions in an organism
the breakdownof complex organic compounds into simpilar ones releases energy
the building of complex organic molecules from simpler ones. consume engery
energy source that is ava. to use for work, stores energy dervived from catabolic reactions and release it later to drive anabolic reactions and perform other celluar work
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
are bilolgical catalysts
2 things must have for a reaction to occur
contact and velocity
what is haloenzyme made of?
apoenzyme (protein) and cofactor (nonprotein)
What are factors that effect enzymatic activity?
Substrate concentration
Always paired
removal of electrons from a molecule (often produce energy)
oxidation reduction reactions
Remember biological oxidation reduction reactions: cells use them in catabolism to extract energy from nutrient molecules.
just remember this
The "high" energy bond of ATP is__________
the attachment of the third phosphate
T or F
Anabolic reactions release energy
Coenzymes have enzymatic activity
Oxidation is the______
removal of electrons
When substrate concentration is maximum the enzyme is said to be_________
How many net ATP are gained from glycolysis?
Where are most ATP produced?
Electron transport chain
All of the following have enzymatic activity except
a. haloenzyme
b. functional enzyme
c. ribozyme
d. apoenzyme
What are the 3 classes of the elctron carriers in the electron transport chain?
ubiquinones/conenzyme Q
FADH2 has more energy than NADH
What is a phosphorylation reaction?
Adding a phosphate group to a chemical reaction?
Energy in molecules is in the protons involved in bonding?
Name the 3 mechanisms of phosphorlation
Substrate level ppl
oxidative ppl
ATP is usually generated when a high energy phos. group is directly transferred from a phosphorylated compound (substrate) to ADP
substrate level ppl
the synthesis of ATP coupled with electron transport
oxidative phosphorylation
Where does oxidative phosphorylation occur in prokaryotes?
plasma membrane
Where does oxidative phosphorylation occure in eukaroytes?
inner membrane of mitochondial
The sequence of electron carriers used in oxidative phosphorylation
electron transport chain
occurs only in photosyntheic cells which contain light trapping pigemnets such as chlorophylls
Most common carb used for energy sourse
The oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid with the productionofsome ATP and energy containing NADH
The oxidation of acetyl CoA (a derivative of pyruvic acid) to CO2, with the production of some ATP, energy containing NADH, and another reduced electron carrier, FADH2.
Krebs cycle
NADH and FADH2 are oxdized, contributing the electrons they have carried from the substrates to a "cascade" of oxidation reduction reactions involving a series of additional electron carriers. Energy from these reactoins is used to generate a considerable amount of ATP. Most ATP is generated here.
Electron transport chain
What is formed when the terminal phosphate group is split from ATP? What type of reactions does this drive?
Anabolic reactions are coupled to ATP ________
ATP synthesis is coupled to _________
Catabolic reactions
Amount of engery needed to disrupt the stable electroic configuration of any specific molecules so that electrons can be rearranged
Activation energy
the frequencyof collisions containing sufficient energy to bring about a reaction
reaction rate
To speed up biochemical reactions at a temperature that is compatible witht he normal functioning of the cell.
Crucial function of enzymes
competes with substrate for active site of enzyme-no reaction occurs-space filler
competitive inhibitors
do not compete with substrate for active site-binds to allosteric site and causes the active site to change shape therefore reaction cannot be catalyed
alleosteric/noncompetitive inhibitors
What reaction is used to extract enegry from nutrient molecules?
Oxidation reactions
Small series of catabolic reactions
Breakdown of gluecose to yield ATP is used by
cellular resperation
How many G3P (Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate) are yieled for the prep stage of glycolysis?
In cellular respiration what in the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration?
In cellular respiration what is the final electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration? Net 25-30 ATP
An inorganic molecule other than O2, or rarely an organic molecule.
Does cellular resp. employ the electron transport chain?
The ETC regenerates NAD & FAD which can be used again in glycolysis and Krebs cycle. The various electron transfers in th ETC generate about 34 molecules of ATP from each molecule of glucose oxidized.
aerobic resperation
Because only part of the Krebs cycle operates under _________ conditions and since not all the carriers in the ETC participate in __________ resp. the ATP yield is never as high.
anaerobic resp
releases enery fro sugars or other organic molecules, such as amino acids, organic acids, purines, and pyrimidines
2) doe not require oxygen
3) does not require the use of the Krebs cycle or and ETC
4) use an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor
5) produces only small amounts of ATP because much of the orginal energy in glucose remains in the chemical bonds of the organic end products, such as lactic acid or ethanol.
What uses an organic molecule as the final elector acceptor and does not require oxygen
What are the products of fermentation?
lactic acid or ethanol.
How many pyuvatic acid molecules are produced by every glucose molecule in aerobic resperation?
Total output
2 molecules of CO2 released
2 molecules of NADH produced
2 molecules of acetyl CoA formed
aerobic resperation
of cellular resp.
Which of the following four stages of glucose oxidation produces the most ATP?
oxidative phosphorylation
Which of the following four stages of glucose oxidation requires molecular oxygen?
Krebs cycle
Which of the following mechanisms does not generate ATP using an electron transport chain?
substrate-level phosphorylation
Distinguish between catabolism and anabolism. HOw are these process related?
Catabolic reactionsbreak down organic compounds and release energy, while anabolic reactions use the products of catabolism and energy to build cell material.
Why are most enzymes active at one particular temperature? Why are enzymes less active below this temp? What happens above this temp?
The optimum temp for an enzyme is one that favors movement of molecules so the enzymes can "find" its substrate. Lower temps will decrease the reate of collisions and the reate of reactions. Increased temps will denature the enzyme.
List four compounds that can be made frompyruvic acid by an organism that uses fermentation only.
Ethyl alcohol, lactic acid, butyl alcohol, acetone, and glycerol
A series of chemical reactions in which NADH is produced from the oxidation of pyruvic acid
Krebs cycle