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91 Cards in this Set

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What changes the shape of the active site of an enzyme
Non competitive inhibitor
What is very similar in shape or chemistry to the normal enzyme substrate
Competitive Inhibitor
What is a photosynthetic bacteria that uses carbon dioxide as a carbon source
Photoautotroph
Both carbon and energy usually with the same organic compound
Chemoheterotroph
What is photosynthetic and uses organic material as a carbon source
Photoheterotroph
What is a mechanism which fatty acids are degraded
Beta Oxidation
A group of enzymes that function as electron carriers in respiration and photosynthesis
Cytochromes
A protein portion of an enzyme, inactive without a co factor
Apoenzyme
A measure of the rate of activity of an enzyme
Turnover Number
A non protein component of an active enzyme
Coenzyme
What is a "Whole enzyme"
Holoenzyme
Building of complex molecules. Requires energy
ATP Breakdown
Anabolism
Breakdown of organic compounds. Releases energy. ATP synthesis
Catabolism
What are sequences of chemical reactions
Metabolic Pathways
Reduce activation energy of a reaction~Has a three dimensional shape~Interact with a substrate molecule~serve as a catalyst
Enzymes
Enzymes are important in living organisms because they......
bring together reactants or properly orient a molecule for a reaction
What assists an enzyme by accepting or donating matter
coenzyme
What is NAD
Electrons
In bacteriologic media trace elements are required because...
They serve as sources of enzyme cofactors
What does competitive inhibition of enzyme action involve?
Completion with the substrate for binding at the active site
What is ATP?
Adenosine triphosphate. Stroes the energy rec'd from catabolic reactions and releases it later to drive anabolic reactions.
The reaction that is coupled with the oxidation of a substrate...
NAD
Oxidation of glucose involves what 3 stages?
1. Glycolysis
2. Krebs Cycle
3. Electron transport chain
During glycolysis electrons from the oxidation of glucose are transferred to
NAD
NADH formed during glycolysis and in Krebs cycle are...
oxidized when electrons are passed to the electorn transport chain
ATP produced during Krebs cycle is formed by
Substrate level Phosphorylation
In Aerobic electron transport chain what happens last?
Electrons are transferred to Oxegyn
The Proton Motive force is..
An electrochemical gradient formed across a membrane
Unlike Eukaryotes, in prokaryotes chemiosmosis
Occurs at the plasma membrane and not the mitochondria.
What controlls all Enzymes (Protein)
DNA
Shapes change when heated because
It is a protein
What is Penose-Phosphate pathway
Heterotrophs use organic molecules as energy and carbon sources needed for nucleic acids.
What is Anaerobic resperation
Bacteria use oxygen substitutes such as nitrates
Pyuvic acid accepts electons and is turned into various end products
Fermentation
Glucose to pyruvic acid
Glycolysis
Electons are removed from an organic compound and transferred by an electon transport chain to oxygen
Oxidative phosphrylation
An electron is liberated from chorophyll and passes down an electron transport chain
Photophosphorylation
A dehydrogenase coenzyme derived from nicotinic acid. Functions as electron carrier. Is Catabolic
NAD
A dehydrogenase coenzyme derived from riboflavin
ATP synthase
In chemiosmosis, protons can diffuse across a membrane only through special channels that contain this enzyme
FMN
Pyruvic acid loses carbon dioxide to form an acetyl group
Decarboxylation
Glycosis
Embden-Meyerhof
A photosynthetic organism that does not produce oxygen
Anoxygenic
Removal of electrons
Reduction
Uses an inorganic source of energy such as ammonia or elemental sulfur
Chemoautotrophic
A chemoheterotroph that lives on dead organic matter is called
Saprophyte
When an enzyme's active site is occupied at all times by substrate or product molecules it is
Saturated
Cyanide is an example of a general type of inhibitor called
non competative
Sulfa drugs are an example of a type of inhibitor called
Cometator
In substrate level phosphorylation
no oxygen or other inorganic final electron acceptor is required
Deamination is
the removal of NH2 from an amnio acid
Decarboxylation is
thr removal of COOH from an amino acid
Substrate is
The substance acted upon by an enzyme
Glucos is usually broken down to pyruvic acid by
Glycolysis
In aerobic respiration, pyruvic acid is converted to acetyl COA then can
enter Krebs cycle
DNA and RNA are made up of repeating units called
Neucleotides
When phosphate is split from ATP
ADP is formed
Tertiary
Most enzymes are in this shape
Where does protein synthesis happen?
In the kitchen (Ribosomes)
One enzyme for each
Chemical reaction
Co Factor
Minerals
Co Enzyme
Vitamins
NAD
Vit B3
FAD
Vit B2
Cellular Respiration
Inorganic
Fermentation
Organic
Competitive ingibitors
Bind to enzyme active site. Where the puzzle would fit.
Non competitive inhibitors
bind to an allosteric site
Oxidation
removal of electorns
When a molecule is oxidized it loses energy
Reuction
gain of electrons
When a molecule is reduced it gains energy
Redox
When one molecule loses elecrons, another gains them. It is when reduction reactions are paired with oxidation reactions.
Apoenzyme
Enzyme with a portion of a protein
Cofactor or coenzyme
Non protein component
Coenzyme
Intermediat energy carrier from one pathway to another.
Substrate level phosphorylation
direct transfer of phosphate from substrate to ADP to make ATP
Oxidative phosphorylation
involves electron transport chain
Chemiosmosis
production of ATP from DP through electrochemical gradient across a membrane.From a buildup of protons
Photophosphrylation
Converts solar energy into chemical energy
Catabolism
Most micros use glucose or carbs as energy. Lipids and protiens also used.
Cellular resperiation
ATP process food molecules oxidized. Electron transport carriers.
Aerobic respiration
Electron acceptor is O2.
Anaerobic respiration
Acceptor is a inorganic molecule. Only happens in bacteria
Fermentation
is organic. Does not require o2
Glycolysis
splitting of sugar
Fermentation
Does not requier Krebs cycle or an electron chain. Organic
Metabolic pathways
sequences of chemical reactions determined by its enzymes that are determined by cells genetic makeup
NADP
Electron carrier. Is anabolic. Requires energy
Co enzyme A
Diriv of B Vit important in synthesis and breakdown of fats in Krebs cycle
Some cofactors are metal ions that may help
Catalyze enzymes, bridging.
Competitive enzyme inhibitor
compete with normal substrate for active size on enzyme
Noncompetitive enzyme inhibitor
decrease ability of normal subsrate to combine with enzyme. Inhibitor changes shape of active site making it nonfunctional.