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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Adrenal Glands
retroperitoneal (behind peritoneum
post abdominal wall
Adrenal cortex control
hormonal - ACTH
ionic - Na blood levels (zona glomerulosa)
adrenal medulla innervation
sympathetic N2 releases epi and norepi
not essential for life
sections of the adrenal medulla can turn brown when exposed to chromate
due to epi and norepi
chromaffin reaction
large vein or artery in the medulla?
suprerenal vein
Adrenal cortex development

Adrenal Medulla developmetn
cortex - mesoderm of post body wall

medulla - neural crest that migrate into mesoderm of post body wall
blood supply to adrenal medulla

3 pairs, pierce capsule of gland

superior suprarenal aa - from inf phrenic aa

middle suprarenal aa - from aorta

inferior suprarenal aa - from renal aa
describe blood flow from arteries to veins
in both cortex and medulla
capsular aa ---> cortical arterioles(cortical cap plexus) --->cortical sinusoids(capillaries of the cortex) --->medullary capillaries (blue blood) ---> medullary vein

note: medullary arterioles supply red blood directly from capsular arteries ---> medullary capillaries
blood supply of medulla and hormones
cortical sinusoids supply it and contain cortical hormones

medullary arterioles supply it and do not contain cortical H

secretory activity of medulla stim by cortical H
Innervation of medulla
only sympathetic

T8-T11 via splanchnic nn's
terminate on chromaffin cells that release epi and norepi
Adrenal cortex

zona glomerulosa
15% of cortex
oviod/pyramidal cells, clustered
elongated mito
SER and lipid droplets
clusters surrounded by caps

secretes aldosterone(mineralcorticoid), permeability of collecting tubules
describe the regulation of aldosterone
decrease Na or BP ---> renin from jg cells ---> angiotensinogen to angiotensin I in blood ---> I goes to II in lung (ACE) ---> aldosterone release ---> increase Na uptake
Zona Fasciculata
78% of cortex
cells in cords separated by sinusoidal caps

secretes cortisol/ hydrocortisone (glucocorticoids)
and contributes to androgen
explain what glucocorticoids do

in liver

in adipose
liver - increase glycogen syn and gluconeogenesis

adipose - increase lypolysis (giving you glycerol and fatty acids)
Zona Reticularis
7% of cortex

irregular cords of cells
similar to zona fasciculata

secretes DHEA and contributes to glucocorticoids
feedback control of cortex
glomerulosa - renin-angiotensin-aldosterone

fasciculatat and reticularis - CRH and ACTH from ant pit
which level of adrenal gland has exceptional mitochondria?
zona glomerulosa has shelf like cristae even though it makes H
Adrenal Medulla
polyhedral cells in clumps/cords

modified postganglionic sympathetic neurons, electron dense vesicles(epi and nor)
three types of adrenal medulla cells
norepi cells (NE)
epi cells (E)
ganglion cells
NE cells
very dense large granules
intra-vesicle density is eccentric
medullary arteriole blood supply
E cells
granules less dense
intra-vesicular density is more homogenous
cortical sinusoid blood supply
phenyl-ethanolamine-N-methyl transferase
converts NE to E, stimulated by corticosteroid
ganglion cells
resemble multipolar neurons
Feedback control of suprarenal medulla
direct innervation!
nn secrete ACh
not under hypophysis control
Fetal adrenal

fetal cortex
permanent cortex
fetal cortex - large mass of centrally placed acidophilic cells arising from mesodermal cells in the body wall, week 5, parallel eosinophilic cords of cells

permanent - second mesodermal wave surround fetal cortex, slightly more basophilic
cushing's syndrome
adrenocortico hypersecretion
moon face, hypertension hyperglycemia and muscular weakness
addisons disease
adrenocortico insufficiency
hypoglycemia, dehydration, hypotension, weakness, weight loss,
of adrenal medulla

increases heart rate and BP