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153 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
components of cardiovascular system
heart, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins, lymphatic vessels
all components of CV system have three layers, which include
innermost layer, middle layer, outermost layer
innermost layer of CV (histology)
tunica intima - endocardium
middle layer of CV (histology)
tunica media - myocardium
outermost layer of CV (histology)
tunica adventitia - epicardium
heart develops from a
simple tube
three layers of CV tissue are developed to a greater or lesser degree depending on
arterovenous shunts found in
in beds of capillaries
tunica intima lies closest to
the lumen of a CV vessel
tunica intima, tissue type
simple squamous epithelium (endothelium)
beneath endothelium in CV system is
a subendothelial layer
subendothelial layers, thickness
composition of endothelium (in CV system)
loose connective tissue containing some smooth muscle cells
endothelium & elements of subendothelium is oriented
longitudinally (in same axis as blood flow)
7 important functions of endothelium
maintains selective permeability barrier; maintins non-thrombogenic barrier; modulates blod flow & vascular resistance; regulates cell growth; regulates immune response; maintains ECM; involved in lipoprotein metabolism
tunica media is most prominent layer in
tunica media, composition
concentric layers of smooth muscle & elastic membranes
tunica media, ratio of components
relative amounts of smooth muscle & elastic membranes dependent upon type of vessel (type IV collagen)
in arteries, tunica media separated from tunica intima by
internal elastic lamina
reticular fibers formed from type _____ collagen
tunica media contains two types of fibers
reticular fibers and proteoglycans
in elastic arteries, _______ predominate
elastic lamellae
all ECM in the tunica media is synthesized by
smooth muscle cells
elements of tunica media are arranged in a
layers of tunica arranged, external to internal
longitudinally, circularly, longitudinally
tunica adventitia is most prominent layer in
tunica adventitia comprised of
connective tissue sheath
connective tissue sheath of tunica adventitia contains mainly
type I collagen
connective tissue sheath of tunica adventitia also contains these two other types of fibers
elastic fibers & smooth muscle fibers
ratio of components in connective tissue depends upon
type of vessel
large vessels may have
their own blood vessels, aka vasa vasorum
______ form a network in the adventitia
vasomotor nerves
vasomotor nerves aka
nervi vascularis
nervi vascularis innervate
smooth muscle of tunica media
elements of tunica adventitia are arranged
longitudinally (in same axis as blood flow)
lymphatic vessels are distinguishable from vascular vessels because
they don't have distinguishable layers
tunica media, on slide, appears
prominent in comparison to rest of vessel
on slides, arteries stand out as compared to veins because
the veins collapse but the arteries don't
moderator band of heart carries
purkinje fibers
ischemia to purkinje fibers can cause
tricuspid valve prolapse (rare)
heart has ____ distinct layers
three distinct layers of heart
endocardium (inside), myocardium, epicardium (outside)
epicardium composed of
connective tissue with vessels & nerves
heart has internal conducting system composed of
highly specialized cardiac muscle cells
endocardium is homologous to
tunica intimia
endocardium composed of
endothelial lining with underlying subendocardium
subendocardium composed of
loose connective tissue containing elastic & collagen fibers & smooth muscle cells
subendocardium contains
some small veins, nerves, and in some locations, purkinje fibers
conduction system of heart comprised of
highly specialized cardiac muscle cells called purkinje fibers
purkinje fibers, in comparison to ordinary cardiac muscle cells are
much larger
purkinje fibers have fewer ______ than ordinary cardiac muscle cells
myofibrils (thus they stain lighter)
purkinje fibers, histological appearance
central, often binucleate, nucleus surrounded by a very prominent light area where glycogen accumulates
impulses initiated at the sinoatrial node travel to
the AV node and then via bundle of His & its branches to the apex of the heart
ischemic attack involving areas where purkinje fibers are located can be
fatal, since damae to these fibers can result in inability of heart to contract rythmically & effectively
myocardium is homologous to
tunica media
mycoardium is thicker in
the ventricles than the atria
two layers of myocardium in the ventricle
inner circular layer & outer spiral layer
cardiac skeleton
dense fibrous connective tissue layer
anchored to cardiac skeleton
cardiac muscle
stage of heart muscle
ischedmia due to coronary artery insufficiency can cause
focal death of myocardial fibers (can't regenerate because they're postmitotic)
following ischemic death, myocardial fibers are replaced by
scar tissue
myocardium accumulates _____ over time during normal conditions
lipofuschin appears as
a brownish-gold pigment
epicardium is homologous to
tunica adventitia
epicardium composed of
thick layer of loose connective tissue with variable amounts of adipose tissue
epidcardium contains
arteries, veins, & nerves
outermost layer of epicardium comprised of
simple squamous epithelium
outermost layer of epicardium aka
mesothelium, a serous membrane
mesothelium is the
visceral pericardium
mesothelium functions to
allow smooth movement (sliding) of heart within pericardial sac
heart valves, two atrioventricular
right = tricuspid; left = bicuspid/mitral
heart valves, other
pulmonic & aortic
aortic valve can be identified on histologic slide because
it has a coronary artery branching off of it
there is no hyperplasia in heart muscle, just
hypertrophy (cells postmitotic, so they can't regenerate more, they can just get bigger)
hypertrophy of cardiac muscle occurs with
different kinds of resistance (systemic vs. pulmonic, etc)
heart change, in people who exercise a lot
thickened myocardial fibers
circulation to muscle reduced with
two classifications of arteries
large elastic arteries & muscular arteries
elastic arteries aka
conducting arteries
elastic arteries, three layers
intima, media, adventitia
intima of elastic arteries
consists of layer of endothelial cells resting on thick subendothelium; CT oriented longitudinally; internal elastic lamina not clearly defined
elastic arteries contain ____ cells
smooth muscle cells
media of elastic arteries, composition
concentrically arranged membranes of elastin (spiral)
media of elastic arteries contain
smooth muscle
media of elastic arteries, arrangement aka
thickness of lamellae in media of elastic aa
lamellae increase in number from
infancy to adulthood
portion of media in elastic arteries that helps maintain blood pressure during diastole
elastin portion of media
adventitia of elastic aa
relatively thin compared to size of vessel
adventitita of elastic aa contains
vasa vasorum that extend into media
smooth muscle cells in elastic aa are oriented
marfan's syndrome, cause
abnormal expression of the fibrillin 1 gene
marfan's syndrome, consequence
abnormal elastic tissue
marfan's syndrome, CV effects
causes dissecting aneurysm of aorta; life threatening
marfan's syndrome, characteristics
pts are tall, arachnodactylic, have mitral valve prolapse, dilation of root of aorta, & aortic dissection
marfan's syndrome, histological appearance
disruption of elastic lamellae in tunica media
muscular aa aka
distributing aa
muscular aa, tunica intima consists of
layer of endothelial cells resting on subendothelial layer containing some smooth muscle
muscular aa, tunica intima, arrangement
muscular aa, tunica intima, most prominent feature
scalloped internal elastic lamina
scalloped internal elastic lamina of muscular aa separates
intima from media
muscular aa, tunica intima, histological appearance
easy to see, particularly in larger muscular aa, with routine H & E stain
muscular aa, tunica media consists of
3 to 40 concentric layers of smooth muscle cells organized circularly
muscular aa, tunica media, histological appearance
elastin membrane between smooth muscle cells can only be seen with special stains
muscualar aa, tunica adventitia, feature
external elastic lamina that separates media from adventitia
muscular aa, tunica adventitia, composition
longitudinally oriented fibroblasts, collagen fibers, & elastic fibers
muscular aa, tunica adventitia, contents
vasa vasorum, lymphatics, vasa nervorum
vasa vasorum of tunica adventitia in muscular aa can extend into
tunica media
atherosclerosis, prevalence
affects more americans than any other disease process
atherosclerosis, risk factors
age, gender (males>females), genetics, obesity, htn, smoking, diabetes mellitus
smoking, affect on vasculature
nicotine causes vascular constriction
atherosclerosis, histological presence
intimal thickening with proliferation of intimal smooth muscle cells & accumulation of lipid
in atherosclerosis, lipids accumulate in
macrophages & smooth muscle cells (foam cells)
growth factor implicated in smooth muscle cell proliferation in atherosclerosis
platelet-derived groth factor (PDGF)
atherosclerosis, mechanism
endothelium breaks down, platelets are deposited, plaque forms, plaque vascularized by "vasa plaquorum," lesion expands & fibrosis leads to vascular occlusion
atherosclerosis, pathogenesis
endothelial damage or monoclonal hypothesis (I.e. smooth muscle proliferation)
arterioles, tunica intima
layer of endothelial cells resting on a very thin subendothelium; internal elastic lamina not usually visible
arterioles, tunica media
one or two layers of concentrically arranged smooth muscle cells
arterioles, tunica adventitia
very thin
arterioles, histological appearance
endothelium bulges out because it's longitudinal; smooth muscle & endothelial cells can be seen
capillaries, function
exchange vessels
capillaries, three types
continuous, fenestrated, sinusoidal
continuous capillaries aka
somatic capillaries
continuous capillaries consist of
continuous endothelium joined by tight junctions (zonula occludens)
continuous capillaries found in
CNS, PNS, muscle (esp. heart), connective tissue, & exocrine glands
means by which something can cross a continuous capillary
CNS capillaries, continuous
have continuous endothelium resting on basal lamina; basal lamina surrounded by astrocytotic endfeet
astrocytotic endfeet in CNS capillaries, function
form blood-brain barrier via endothelial tight junctions & paucity of pinocytotic vesicles
fenestrated capillaries aka
visceral capillaries
fenestrated capillaries, characterized by
continuous endothelium interrupted by pores/fenestrae
pores of fenestrated capillaries sometimes have
thin diaphragms over them
location where fenestrated capillaries do not have diaphragms
renal glomeruli
renal glomerulus, histological appearance
"tuft" of fenestrated capillaries
sinusoidal capillaries aka
discontinuous capillaries
sinusoidal capillaries, characteristics
specialized, very large lumens, many open fenestrations & absence of basal lamina, macrophages present in walls
sinusoidal capillaries, location
structures where fluid moves v. slowly, eg liver, lympoid, & hematopoietic organs
liver, sinusoidal capillaries, characterization
capillaries with macrophages that sit in the lumen, called Kupffer cells
diabetes mellitus & microvascular disease, interaction
capillary basal laminae (basement membrane) thickens abnormally, with evidence of increased laminin & collagen type IV synthesis by endothelial cells
venules, definition
small, postcapillary vessels
venules, characterostcs
very thin walls rel. to size of limen & rel. to paired arterioles; exchange vessels
venules, histologically present next to
venules, histological appearance
thin wall with irregular lumen
veins, characteristics
thin intima, poorly developed media, v. well developed adventitia
veins, small & medium sized, special feature
have valves in their interiors
valves in veins formed by
subendothelial connective tissue and have covering of endothelium
veins, large, special features
thick intimas, relatively thin medias, & prominent, well-developed adventitias
veins, largest, special characteristc
have very prominent longitudinal bundles of smooth muscle in the adventitia
distinguishing features, arteries v. veins
large arteries have thick intimas, thick medias, & v. underdeveloped adventitias; large veins have thick intimas, thin medias, & v. well developed adventitias freq characterized by longitudinal bundles of smooth muscle
distinguishing features, muscular aa
appear v. round in cross section, thick wall rel. to diameter, prominent internal elastic lamina, v. well developed media
distinguishing features, veins comp sized to muscular aa.
seldom regularly shaped in cross section, wall thin rel. to vessel diameter, no prominent internal elastic lamina, thin media & thick adventitia
lymphatic vessels, characteristics
v. thin-walled, capillaries usually have larger irregular lumens (compared to vascular capillaries)
larger lymphatics, characteristics
do not have well-defined tunics; can have valves