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87 Cards in this Set

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__________ dieseases are transmitted from one host to another.
Communicable
In order for a disease to spread, the pathogen must have a __________ environment in which to live and must leave that environment to be transmitted to susceptible _______.
Suitable
Host
The natural habitat of a bug is termed __________.
Resevoir
The pathogen leaves animal reservoir through _________ of ________.
Portal of exit
Epidemiologists are more concerned with _______ of the disease.
Rate
Rate of the disease = ...?
Percentage of given population that is infected. 100/10,000,000 vs 100/1000
_________ rate is the number of cases developing in group of people exposed.
Attack
10 sick out of 100 = 10% attack rate
_________ rate is the number of cases of illness divided by the population at risk.
Morbidity
_________ rate reflects population that dies from the disease.
Mortality
__________ reflects number of new cases per specific time period.
Incidence
__________ reflects the total number of existing cases.
Prevalence, a snapshot
Diseases that are constantly present are termed _________.
Endemic, this varies with location.
When endemics are spread worldwide they are termed _________.
Pandemic
_________ refers to a cluster of cases in a brief time affecting a specific population.
Outbreak
_________ of pathogen affects extent and distribution of disease.
Reservoirs
Reservoirs can be...
Human, non-human or environmental
True or False:
Human reservoirs are sometimes not affected by the disease, making it easier to control.
True
Human reservoirs can be ____________ infections or ____________ carriers.
Symptomatic (obvious source of infectious agent)
Asymptomatic (harbors pathogen w/ no ill effects but may shed organisms for long time)
Disease transmitted by non-human animal reservoirs are termed __________, infection into humans is accidental.
Zoonotic
Two examples of environmental reservoirs, one in water and one in soil:
Water = geardea
Soil = tetunus
Pathogens with ___________ reservoirs are near impossible to eradicate.
Environmental
Three types of portals of exit:
1. Intestinal tract thru feces
2. Respiratory tract = aerosols (most efficient)
3. Skin = shed with skin cells
Successful pathogens must be able to tranfer from ____________ to susceptible __________.
Reservoir
Host
Transmission of pathogen via contact with food, water, living agent is termed ____________ transfer. While the transfer from mother to fetus = _________ transfer.
Horizontal
Vertical
________ contact is when it goes directly from one person to another. Usually bugs that can't survive for extended periods in the environment.
Direct
Indirect contact involves transmission via inanimate objects or _________. This is common on cruise ships.
Fomites
__________ are the most common vectors.
Arthropods
Factors that influence the epidemiology of disease are:
1. Dose
2. Incubation period
3. Population characteristics
Probability of contracting a disease is often proportional with ________.
Dose
A disease with a _____ incubation period (like smallpox) can spread extensively before first case appears.
Long
Six population characteristics that influence occurrence of disease are...
1. Immunity to pathogen
2. General health
3. Age (very young or old)
4. Gender
5. Religious and cultural practices (breast feeding, canabalism)
6. Genetic background
Previous exposure or immunization of population __________ susceptibility of population to organism. This can lead to ______ immunity.
Decreases
Herd
Stressors such as ___________ or overcrowding increase susceptibility.
Malnutrition
Gender influences disease distribution often due to ___________ differences.
Anatomical
Epiemiologists investigate disease outbreak to determine __________ agent, __________ and route of ____________. Knowing these things helps minimize spread.
Causative
Reservoir
Transmission
_________ studies are used to determine things like person, place and time.
Descriptive
The first case of an outbreak is called the ______ ________.
Index case
If the infection spread rapidly, probably a _________ _________ epidemic.
Common source
A gradual rise in numbers = a _________ disease, termed _________ epidemic.
Contagious
Propagated
_________ studies determine which potential factors from descriptive study are relevant.
Analytical
______-________ studies survey range of people to determine prevalence of number of characteristics.
Cross-Sectional
____________ studies are done following a disease outbreak and compare actiosn and events surrounding outbreak.
Retrospective
____________ studies look ahead to see if risk factors from retrospective study predict tendancy to develop disease.
Prospective
The only health organization we learned about that doesn't have political ties is the...
World Health Organization
___________ studies are used to judge the cause and effect relationshop of risk factors or prevalence factors and disease development.
Experimental
Treatments in experimental studies are compared with __________ and the method of _________-_______ testing is used.
Placebo
Double-blind
There is a general upswing of infectious diseases worldwide mainly due to two things:
1. Antibiotic resistant strains
2. HIV
__________ infections are defined as hospital acquired infections.
Nosocomial
What species is a common cause of nosocomial pneumonia and UTI's and burn infections?
Pseudomonas species
_____________ species, E. coli, and other species in the family enterobacteriaceae are part of the normal flora.
Enterococcus
____________ ________ is the biggest threat today. It survives in environment for long time and is easily trasmissable to _________.
Staphylococcus aureus
Fomites
True or False:
All Staph species are pathogenic.
False, most are part of normal flora.
Health care workers are often the cause of hospital outbreaks due to...
Improper handwashing or sterile techniques.
Patient's own normal flora can cause problems if ___________ treatments introduce surface flora to interior regions of body (like the appendix repturing)
Invasive
List three ways that infectious agents can be transmitted through a hospital:
1. Medical devices (devices usually breach first-line defenses)
2. Healthcare personel
3. Airborne
________ _________ discovered antibiotics when he was workign with _____________.
Alexander Fleming
Staphylococcus
Ernst ________ and Howard ________ successfully purified penicillin, not Fleming.
Chain and Florey
Selman _________ isolated ___________ from soil bacterium Streptomyces griseus.
Waksman
Streptomycin
Most modern antibiotics come from organisms living in the ______ that are excreating _________ to kill competition.
Soil
Toxins
In some cases drugs are chemically altered to impart new characteristics, these are termed:
Semi-synthetic
Antimicrobial drugs have ________ toxicity, meaning they cause greater harm to microorganisms then humans, but they arn't totally harmless.
Selective toxicity
The toxicity of a drug is termed as its __________ _______. The higher the number is, the less toxic the drug is.
Therapeutic index
Drugs can either kill = _________ or inhibit = ___________ bacterial growth.
Kill = bacteriocidal
Inhibit = bacteriostatic
___________ drugs still rely on the host's immunity to eliminate the pathogen.
Bacteriostatic
________ of activity refers to antimicrobials variance when it comes to range of organisms controlled.
Spectrum
A narrow spectrum works on either ________ OR _________.
Gram - OR Gram +
A broad spectrum works on _________ AND __________. The disadvantage of this one is disruption of normal flora.
Gram - AND Gram +
Drugs differ in how they are distributed, metabolized and excreted. The rate of elimination of drug from body is expressed in _______-________.
Half-life
Hife life dictates frequency of _______.
Dosage
Sometimes drugs are combined. When action of one drug enhances that of another, effect is _________.
Synergistic (2+2=5)
When the action of one drug interferes with another, it is termed ___________.
Antagonistic
When the effect of combination is neither synergistic or antagonistic, it is called __________.
Additive (like two narrow spectrum antibiotics)
One toxic effect from antimicrobial drugs that prevents the boy from making RBC or WBC is called:
Aplastic Anemia
Supression of normal flora results in antibiotic associated __________.
Colitis
Drugs that interfere with cell wall synthesis have a very _______ theraputic index.
High, low toxicity with high effectiveness
Three antimicrobials that deal with inhbition of cell walls are:
1. Beta lactam drugs
2. Vancomycin
3. Bacitracin
Penicillins are part of a group of drugs called:
Beta-Lactams
Beta-Lactams inhibit ________ __________ formation btwn glycan molecules.
Peptide bridge
Vancomycin inhibits formation of _________ chains. This must be given ____________ due to poor absorbtion thru digestional tract.
Glycan
Intravenously
____________ reversibly bins 30S ribosomal subunit and block attachment of tRNA to ribosome.
Tetracyclins
Newer tetracylins, like __________, have a longer half life.
Doxycycline
___________ block prokaryotic RNA polymerase, so they block the initiation of transcription. Mostly effective against Gram ___'s.
Rifamycins
+
Rifamycins is generally used to treat _____________ as well as preventing ___________ after exposure.
TB
Meningitis
There is resistance against Rifamycin due to mutation coding ______ __________.
RNA polymerase
MIC refers to _____________ _____________ ____________. This number is determined through __________ tests.
Minimum inhibitory Concentration
Quantitative
MIC is determined by producing _________ __________ with decreasing concentrations of test drug.
Serial dilutions
________-_______ disc diffusion is routinely used to qualitatively determine susceptibility. A clear zone of __________ is shown around effective antimicrobials.
Kirby-Bauer
Inhibition