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70 Cards in this Set

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Some bacteria have _________ relationships with their hosts. The three types of these relationships are:
Symbiotic
1. Mutualism (both benefit, ex. K and B vitamins)
2. Commensalism (bacteria benefit with no harm to the host)
3. microbe grows at the expense of its host.
The _______ ________ are those bacteria that are commonly found on/in the body of a healthy host.
Normal flora
True or False:
Our bodies have more bacterial cells in them then human cells, so we are technically more bacteria then human.
True
many of the normal flora play ________ protective roles for the host.
Critical
___________ ________ causes scalded skin syndrome when staph epi is compromised on the skin (staph epi is a normal flora). The example in class involved iodined babies in ______'s.
Staphylococcus aureus
1950's
_________ __________ is allowed to grow out of control in the GI tract during aggressive antibiotic therapy.
Clostridium difficile
Staph epi is found in the ________ and _________.
Nose and skin.
Infection is ___________ colonization by a microbe.
Parasitic
Clinical manifestations are either __________ (apathogenic) or _________ (pathogenic).
-Subclinical (w/o pathology it's not parasitic)
-Clinical (symptoms of disease, you feel sick)
Their are two main courses for infection, they are:
1. Primary- disease caused by the initial infection
2. Secondary- because of the initial infection, another microbe can establish an infection.
An example of a secondary course of infection is ________ virus being followed by ___________ __________ pneumonia.
Influenza
Klebsiella pneumonia
Pathogenicity is the capacity for a microbe to ________ _________.
Cause disease
Some microbes are __________ pathogens and usually cause disease after colonization. Others are ____________ pathogens and cause disease only in __________ with some other unusual events (like Immunocompromised people ((ex _____)) and compromised normal flora).
Primary
Opportunistic
Conjugation
HIV
___________ or contagious diseases are readily transmitted person-to-person (influenza, pertussis and _________)
Communicable
Measles
Other diseases are not communicable/contagious (______ ______, ________) since they are not transmitted person-to-person.
West Nile
Anthrax
Infection is also a function of __________ of microbes.
Quantity
The infectious disease dose is expressed as ______.
ID50(subscript)
The ID50 for a microbe is the number of bacteria or viruses needed to infect ___ of ____ people given the dose.
50 of 100
The ID50 varies amoung pathogens. Anthrax is ________.
10,000
List the three courses of an infection:
1. Incubation period (no symptoms)
2. Illness- phase of disease
3. Convalescence- recovery from disease
Some people can be ________ for a disease (the example given in class was typhoid Mary)
Carriers
List the three duration times for a disease:
1. Acute- rapid onset, short duration
2. Chronic- slow onset, long duration
3. Latent- agent is never eliminated
_____ ___ is the most burdonsome latent infection today. It's so widespread in the US because of _______ _____________.
Hep C
Blood Transfusions
Most pathogens are _________ to a specific tissue, others can be _________, and some __________ pathogens can become _________.
Localized
Systemic
Localized can become systemic
Since a pathogen can become systemic, the distribution of a pathogen is often a ________ __________ indicator.
Poor prognostic
Name the four main types of microbes and their products in the blood:
1. Bacterermia- Bacteria in blood
2. Viremia- Virus in the blood
3. Toxemia- Toxins in the blood
4. Septicemia- life-threatening; bacteria replicating in the blood
The most serious of the four main types of microbes and its toxins is _________.
Septicemia
Etiology is the study of the _________ and ________ of disease.
Causes and origins
_______ postulates of infectious disease etiology.
Koch's
Koch's Postulates:
1. The microbe must be _______ in every instance of the disease.
Present
Koch's Postulates:
2. The microbe must be __________ and _________ from a diseased animal.
Isolated and cultured
Koch's Postulates:
4. The microbe must be ___________ from the animal.
Reisolated (to make sure it's in there)
Koch's Postulates:
3. Introduction of the microbe into a _________ ________ must result in disease.
Susceptible animal (like the example of anthrax in cows and chickens)
List five diseases that are only susceptible in humans:
1. HIV
2. Measles
3. Mumps
4. Smallpox
5. Hanta virus
The _________ __________ or gene must be detected in pathogenic members of a species but not in nonpathogenic members.
Virulence factor
Introduction of the gene(s) that encodes the virulence factor into a __________ must convert the microbe into a pathogenic strain.
Nonpathogen
The gene must be __________ when introduced into a susceptible animal. To detect this, you look for _______.
Expressed
mRNA
_________ or immune cells (e.g. Tc cells) must protect the animal from the disease.
Antibodies
There are four main mechanisms for disease:
1. Production of ________ that are ingested.
2. ___________ of the host surface (skin or mucosa), followed by _________ production
3. _________ of host tissues
4. Invasion of host tissues, followed by ________ production.
Exotoxins
Colonization, exotoxin
Invasion
Exotoxin
Establishment of infection:
__________ is mediated by glycoproteins termed ________. Typically that have ____________ for host cell surface proteins.
Adherence
Adhesins
Specificity
Establishment of infection:
___________ is the replication of bacteria at the site of adherence.
Colonization
Colonizing microbes secrete factors that _______ the host cell response, such as _____ ___________ (enzymes that digest IgA dimers)
Impair
IgA proteases
Colonization also allows for the expression of _______-binding molecules termed __________.
Iron
Siderophores
Establishment of infection:
Delivery of _________ molecules into host cells, often ___________ ________ that damage the host cell.
Effector
Virulence factors
____________ _________ are clusters of genes that encode virulence factors.
Pathogenicity islands
Invasion:
Penetration of the skin happens in two ways:
1. Cuts, abrasions, burns
2. A vector (flea, tick, etc)
Invasion:
Penetration of the mucous membranes. This is ________ uptake by cells. Exploitation of __________ __________ by immune cells (they travel using the immune system).
Directed uptake
Antigen sampling (dendritic cells and macrophages)
___________ cells rarely get infected with bacteria because they eat things via ___________.
Dendritic
Pinocytosis
Avoiding the host's response:
Hiding within a host cells allows the bug to ________ _________, which are only located in the extracellular matrix.
Avoid antibodies
Avoiding the host's response:
Some bugs avoid getting killed by complement ________ _________. An example of this is _________ gonorrhoeae inactivating the C3b complement protein, messing up everything ________ in that pathway.
System proteins
Neisseria
Downstream
Avoiding the host's response:
Some bugs avoid death by phagocytes: _________ ___________ kills macrophages.
Bacillus anthracis
____________ __________ produces streptolysin O that damages phagocytic cell membranes.
Streptococcus pyogenes
___________ capsules are resistant to phagocytosis.
Polysaccharide
Strep pyogenes (protein G) and _______ _________ (protein A) secrete proteins that bind to ____ portions of antibodies, thus neutralizing them.
Staph aureus
Fc portions
Exotoxins are proteins secreted by various pathogenic ___________. They can be local or __________.
Bacteria
Systemic
Exotoxins can be _________ in small amounts (1g of __________ toxin is enough to kill Earth's population)
Fatal
Botulinum
Humans cannot react quickly enough. These exotoxins exert their effect before ________ can be _____________.
Antibodies
Synthesized
Exotoxins:
A-B toxins refer to two polypeptides, A is _________ while B _________ _________.
Toxic
Dictates target
Exotoxins:
With ________-damaging toxins, ___________ disrupts RBC membranes.
Membrane
Hemolysin
Exotoxins:
__________ "trick" large numbers of helper T cells into producting inflammatory __________ (responding to the wrong infection).
Superantigens
Cytokines
Without their _________, the bacteria would not be ___________ (or would have little effect).
Exotoxins
Pathogenic
___________ are lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The two components are _______ A (toxic) and a polysaccharide.
Endotoxins
Lipid
Normally endotoxins are found as an ________ membrane component of Gram___ bacteria.
Outer
Negative
Endotoxins bind to ____-______ receptors on phagocytic cells, which results in the release of _________ __________ factor from the cell.
Toll-like
Tumor necrosis
TNF causes _______ leakage and inflammation. This can lead to ___________ and disseminated ___________ ____________ (AKA septic shock)
Capillary
Hypotension
Intravascular coagulation
True or False:
Viruses encode toxins.
False
Viruses principal cause of damage is...
death of a cell
In some viral infections, the immune response is so aggressive that it causes ____________.
Immunopathology
Many viruses encode ________-__________ proteins that overthrow the immune response.
Immune-modulating
Immune-modulating proteins shut down _____ class I processing and presentation, impair the _________ pathway, viral _________ and interfere with _________ (death signals from T and NK cells)
MHC
Interferon
Cytokines
Apoptosis