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52 Cards in this Set

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___________ are non-infectious, the immune system responds to themas with any other antigenic stimuli.
Allergens
Allergens therefore are __________ because they illicit an immune response.
Antigens
_____ binds to antigens and once bound it can bind to mast cells (___________)
IgE
granulocytes
The mast cell ____________, resulting in inflammation and congestion (allergies, hives, asthma and even _________ __________)
Degranulates
Anaphylactic shock
____________ shots can help for some patients, because if the immune cells are overstimulated, they can shut down.
Desensitization
Antibodies bind to _____ _________ antigens (e.g. ____________)
Cell surface
Glycoproteins
When a blood transfusion is mismatched, the mismatched RBC will be bound by the patient's __________ which are ever-present and likely arise by cross-__________ of antibacterial antibodies.
Antibodies
Reactivity
__________ disease of newborns (they're called ____ babies)
Hemolytic
Rh
When a mother is ________ factor negative and baby is Rh+, then during the first pregnancy, the mother generates an _________ response.
Rhesus
Antibody
During subsequent pregnancies with Rh+ baby, the mother's antibodies cross the _________ and target the babies RBC for _______.
Placenta
Lysis
Hemolysis refers to the ________ of ______.
Lysis
RBC
Type I Hypersensitivities are ____________ IgE-_________.
Immediate IgE-Mediated
Allergies, hives, asthma and anaphylactic shock are all examples of what type of hypersensitivity?
Type I: Immediate IgE-mediated
Type II hypersensitivities are also known as _________. Two examples of this type would be:
Cytotoxins
Blood transfusion reactions
Hemolytic disease of newborns
Type III hypersensitivities are ___________ ________-mediated
Immune complex
Type III hypersensitivities are complexes of ___________ and antigens that form in tissues and if not cleared, promote ___________ and __________ obstruction.
Antibodies
Inflammation
Vascular obstruction
An example of an immune complex-mediated type III hypersensitivity is:
Serum sickness
Tetanus antitoxin is _______ antibodies against the toxoid. After a few doses, anti-_______ antibodies are made by the body and these can form _________ in tissues.
Horse
Horse
Complexes
This anti-antibody horse thing is called _______ sickness and can be fatal.
Serum
Type IV hypersensitivity is:
Delayed cell-mediated
Type IV are allergic reactions that occur ____-____days post exposure.
2-3
Delayed cell-mediated reactiosn take place because of ____ cell __________ into the tissue.
T cell infiltration
T cells specific for the ________ leave the blood and enter the tissue where they secrete inflammatory ________.
Antigen
Cytokines
The ________ skin test tests for past exposure to TB.
Tuberculin,
Small amounts of killed TB are injected at the surface of the skin and the test is read the next day.
Contact __________ (poison ivy/oak, latex gloves, nickel, cosmetics) are all examples of type _____, _________ cell-mediated.
Dermititis
Type IV
Delayed cell-mediated
Collectivly, these responses are usually referred to as _________-_________ hypersensitivities (DTH)
Delayed-type
Organ and tissue rejection is caused by _____ _______.
T cells
Organ and tissue rejection is principally mediated by _____ class I and II proteins
MHC
______ is used for any bug that attacks your cells, but they also __________ the organ rejection response.
MHC
Illicit
The proteins of human MHC are ________ __________ __________ (HLA)
Human leukocyte antigens
In humans, there are ___ MHC class I loci (A,B,C) and ___ class II loci (DR, DQ, DP).
3
3
Each person has two copies (alleles) of each MHC gene, thus ____ possible MHC alleles.
12
The genes of MHC are the most __________ known, the HLA-DR gene has more than 100 known alleles.
Polymorphic
True or False:
The chances of someone having the same alleles for all 6 MHC class I and II genes is relatively likely.
False
It is very unlikely.
A transplanted organ is an ___________.
Allograft
Once the transplanted organ is ____________, the recipient's ____ cells infiltrate it. They recognize the ______ molecules as foreign and initiate _______ of the transplant cells.
Vascularized
T
MHC
Lysis
__________ occurs in the donor organ and its blood supply is _________. If the organ is not removed, the patient will die.
Necrosis
Terminated
Autoimmunity is a __________ (T and B cell)-________ event.
Lymphocyte-mediated
__________ lymphocytes probably arise on a regular basis.
Autoreactive
These autoreactive __________ are normally deleted in the bone marrow (for ___cells or the thymus for ___ cells) but some escape deletion and populate _________ lymphatics.
Lymphocytes
B cells = bone marrow
T cells = thymus
Secondary
If these autoreactive lymphocytes escape deletion, they recognize ______-____ molecules as foreign and attack them, causing ___________.
Self-MHC
Pathology
Some common autoimmune diseases are: Myasthenia gravis (antibodies to ACh receptor), ____ __ _________ (various assaults on the insulin pathway), __________ arthritis (immune complexes in joints) and ________ Disease (antibodies to thyroid stimulating hormone receptor)
Type I diabetes
Rheumatoid
Graves
True or False:
There are many successful treatments for autoimmune diseases.
False, many ideas but few are successful
The two broad groups for immunodeficiency disorders are:
1. Primary (congenital)= genetic disease
2. Secondary (acquired)= HIV, chemical exposure
Five examples of congenital immunodeficiences are:
1. Severe-combined immunodeficiencies (SCID)
2. Bare lymphocyte syndrome
3. Hyper IgM syndrome
4. Chediak-Higashi syndrome
5. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency
Severe-_________ _____________ (SCID) is when there are defects in both T and B cell development. Kids have no ________ immune response and some of these SCID's are X-linked, so they affect more _______ than ______ (X-SCID).
-Severe-combined immunodeficiences
-Adaptive
Boys than girls
Bare ________ syndrome has no class ____ MHC expression and no functional _________ ___ cells.
Lymphocyte
II
Helper T
Hyper IgM syndrome causes a defect in class __________. There's no ability to change from IgM thus no __________ ___________.
Switching
Affinity maturation
Chediak-Higashi syndrome causes a defect in _________ transport. There's an inability of _____ cells to secrete immunomodulatory substances.
Lysosomal
Natural killer (NK)
With ___________ adhesion deficiency, cells cannot attach to ______ of blood vessels (i.e. no tissue infiltration)
Leukocyte
Lumen
Describe gene therapy for immunodeficiencies:
All immune cells arise in the bone marrow. Bone marrow stem cells are harvested and genetic defect is repaired in vitro. These cells are returned to body where they will hopefully outpopulate the bad cells.
Two examples of secondary immunodeficiency disorders are:
1. HIV
2. Chemotherapy (wipes out immune system)