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43 Cards in this Set

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Plague bacteria is called _________ ________ and has killed more people than any other infectious disease.
Yersina pestis
A virus like smallpox can be ___________ because it only infects humans.
Eradicated
The last case of smallpox was in _______, after the program for the global eradication of smallpox started in the late ________.
1977
1960's
Vaccines safely ________ an adaptive (___ cells and ___ cells) immune response to pathogenic microbes.
Elicit
T and B cells
Vaccines stimulate:
-High-_________ antibodies
-Class ___________ of antibodies and
-__________ T and B cells
Affinity
Switching
Memory
There are two types of vaccines, they are ________ (all bacteria and some viruses) or ___________ (some viruses).
Inactivated
Attenuated
__________ refers to using a similar virus that is not pathogenic. This relies upon ________-_________ immunity.
Attenuation
Cross-reactive
___________ virus for smallpox is an example of ___________.
Vaccinia
Attenuation
________ passage of pathogenic virus in cell culture or embryonated eggs.
Serial
Since cells and eggs have no immune systems, mutant viruses that arrive often lose ____________. These viruses often retain their __________ determinants and illicit strong immunity.
Virulence
Antigenic
Inactivation of the vaccine involes two chemicals: ____________ and ____-_____________.
Formalin (37% formaldehyde)
Beta-propiolactone
Formalin ______-links proteins and nucleic acids and is used for ________ vaccines such as tetanus.
Cross
Toxoid
Beta-propiolactone (BPL) is a __________ acid mutagen which breaks down rapidly. After 24 hours, it's all gone.
Nucleic
List the four types of inactivated vaccines:
1. Whole-agent
2. Toxoid
3. Protein subunit vaccine
4. Polysaccharide conjugate vaccines
Describe whole-agent vaccines
The entire microbe is in the vaccine (ex. the inactivated poliovirus)
Describe the toxoid vaccines
There are no cells in the vaccine, just their toxins (like tetanus)
Describe the protein subunit vaccines:
Only antigenic subunits (exs. acellular pertussis and hep B)
Describe the polysaccharide conjugate vaccines:
By conjugating (covalently-linking) polysaccharide antigens to proteins, the antigen becomes T-dependant. Ex. are Haemophilus influenza and strep pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenza is one of the two causes of __________ in children.
Meningitis
Inactivated vaccines require an __________ (like aluminum hydroxide) to stimulate the innate immune response.
Adjuvant
Measels vaccine must be __________, which is a disadvantage of attenuation.
Refrigerated
Another disadvantage of attenuation is pathogenic __________, like in the polio virus.
Revertants
Like the polio virus which has 3 live viruses in it which could potentially revert back to pathogenic strains.
Inactivated vaccines require more __________ shots then attenuated vaccines.
Booster
Inactivated vaccines don't stimulate _____ __ processing (meaning there are no ____ cells)
MHC I
Tc cells
Globally, measles still kills __________ people
700,000
By immunizing, the __________ of a disease and therefore the microbe, decreases.
Incidence
For each infectious disease, a target _______ _________ rate is needed to reduce the incidence of disease to near zero. For measles, the rate is _____%
Target vaccine coverage rate
95%
True or False:
The risk of not getting vaccinated is greater then that of getting vaccinated.
True
True or False:
The incidence of autism in vaccinated children is far greater then that of nonvaccinated children.
False, the rates are almost exactly the same
Outline Japan's experiance with pertussis (whooping cough);
-1972: Mandatory vaccination at 3 months, cases down to 300 a year.
-1973-1974: 2 kids die of the vaccination, so lawmakers change the age to 2 years
-1979: Japan records over 13,000 cases
-1980: Japan returns to it's previous age
Vaccines are often victims of...
Their own success. They are so successful, people do not know about the disease that they prevent. No vaccinations = disease comes back.
Antibodies are generated in __________ to infection.
Response
Detection of _____ indicates recent infection.
IgM
Detection of _____ indicates recent or distant infection.
IgG
The study of blood antibodies is termed _________.
Serology
List the 5 steps of blood collection:
1. Collect blood without anticoagulants
2. Allow to stand at room temp for 30 min to clot, then 4 C for 1 hour for contraction
3. Centrifuge the blood
4. Aspirate the serum into a new tube.
5. Dilute for testing (1:20 IgM and 1:100 for IgG testing)
List the 5 serological tests:
1. Agglutination (liek flu typing)
2. Precipitation
3. Immunofluorescence
4. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA)
5. Western blot
List the four steps of ELISA:
1. Antigen
2. Serum sample
3. Detection antibody
4. Substrate
Antigen step of ELISA:
Coat the known protein antigen to a solid-surface. PVC (polyvinyl chloride) is commonly used b/c/ it has a high affinity for proteins.
Serum Sample step of ELISA: Add the patients serum and incubate _______. If antibodies to the antigen are present, they will bind to the __________ coated on the plate.
1 hour
Antigens
Detection of Antibody:
Wash the plate with saline, then add an ________-________ anti-human IgG antibody. If the patient has antibodies, they will be bound by the __________ __________.
Enzyme-conjugated
Detection antibody
Substrate step of ELISA:
Wash with saline, then add substrate that _______ ______ in the presence of the enzyme.
Turns color
ELISA has a ____% false positive rate.
Five