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45 Cards in this Set

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When T cells and B cells recognize a particular pathogen, they begin to rapidly divide which results in a dramatic increase of ________-specific cells over several days. This is termed ________ __________.
Pathogen
Clonal expansion
The _______ immune response is critical in slowing down the pathology of a pathogen so the ________ immune response can get involved.
Innate
Adaptive
The adaptive response is _____ to start.
Slow
All microbial components are potential _______ for the immune response.
Antigens
________ are any molecule that can elicit an immune response.
Antigens
Primary immune response is the first ________ to an infectious agent. It is _____ to start and often involves ___________.
Exposure
Slow
Pathology
Secondary immune response is any additional ________ to the pathogen. Usually so quick that there are no _________.
Exposure
Symptoms
List the 2 adaptive immune responses:
1. Type I immunity (cell-mediated immunity)
2. Type II immunity (humoral or antibody immunity)
The two adaptive immune responses are usually __________ __________.
Mutually exclusive
Overview Humoral (Type II) Immunity:
Describe the B cells
-B cells are covered with copies of a membrane bound antibody called a B cell receptor (BCR) or surface Ig. This antibody is specfic for a particular molecule
Overview Humoral (Type II) Immunity:
The binding of the antibody on the B cell to the pathogen.
When the pathogen enters the body, the B cell will bind to it because of it's BCR.
Overview Humoral (Type II) Immunity:
After the B cell binds to the pathogen...
This allows the B cell to mature into a plasma cell, which then begins to secrete soluble versions of its antibody. These antibodies can chill out for years, if they bind to the antigen, they target it for destruction.
Overview of Cellular (Type I) Immunity:
List the 3 subsets of T cells:
1. Helper T cells
2. Cytotoxic T cells
3. Regulatory T (Treg) cells
Overview of Cellular (Type I) Immunity:
Helper T cells
-Secretes cytokines that mediate local immune responses
-Augment activites of the innate response
-Are the "generals" of the immune response
Overview of Cellular (Type I) Immunity:
Cytotoxic T cells
-Physically interact with cells harboring a pathogen and kills the cell
-Are the "special forces" of the immune response
Overview of Cellular (Type I) Immunity:
Regulatory T (Treg) cells
-Supress inflammation as the immune response wanes. These are potential theraputic cells because they can develope in the lab.
Lymphatic vessals contain ______.
Lymph
__________ _______ ________ are where immune cells gather to coordinate their activities (lymph nodes, spleen, payer's patches)
Secondary lymphatic organs
__________ ________ ________ are where immune cells develop from stem cells (bone marrow and thymus)
Primary lymphoid organs
Where is the only place where blood and lymph mix in the body?
Thoracic duct
A microbe usually has tens of thousands of _________ __________ (AKA ________) that can be recognized by the immune system.
Antigenic components, AKA epitopes
Antibodies are __________ (carbs and polypeptides). They are ___% carbs.
glycoproteins
2% carbohydrates
Antibody compostition:
Two arms that compose the Fab (_________ _________) region that binds to antigentic ___________. This is the "__________ end".
Fraction antibody
Determinants
Buisness
Antibodies are ___valent.
Divalent
One stem (____ region) that can bind to _________ __________ or complement proteins.
Fc
Phagocyte receptors
Each antibody is composed of two identical ________ (L) polypeptide chains and two identical _________ (H) polypeptide chains.
Light (small)
Heavy (large)
These polypeptides have ________ and ________ disulfide bonds (covalent) that hold the chains together and maintain the antibody's ____ _______.
Intrachain
Interchain
3D shape
List the 5 antibody classes based upon the H chains:
The class of the antibody dictates its __________ ________.
1. IgG
2. IgM
3. IgE
4. IgA
5. IgD
Biological function
The _________ regions of the H and L chains dictate binding to the _________.
Variable
Antigen
The _________ ________ of the H and L chains determine the 3D structure and the _________ __________ of the antibody.
Constant region
Biological activities
What are the two main outcomes of antigen-antibody binding?
1. Antibodies bind to antigens with noncovalent bonds
2. Early in response, antibody affinity is weak, later in the response it is strong
List the 6 effects of antibody binding to antigen:
1. Neutralization
2. Immobilization and preventing adherence
3. Agglutination and precipitation (big mouthful)
4. Opsinization facilitates phagocytosis
5. Complement system activation
6. Antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC)
Neutralization of an antigen by a antibody:
Blocks the biologically-relevant portion of an antigen, rendering it inactive.
Avidity is the __________ ________ of interaction.
Collective strength
IgM:
-_____ secreted antibody
-Exists as a _________
-Efficient at _________ _______.
-Primary antibody against _____.
-Low _________, but high ________.
First
Pentamer (valency of 10)
Complement fixation
LPS
Low affinity, high avidity
IgG:
-Most common antibody in _______.
-High _________.
-Some are effiecient ________ fixers, others mediate ADCC.
-Some cross the placenta and are in breast milk, these are termed __________.
Serum
Affinity
Complement
Colostrum
IgA:
-Most _________ antibody.
-Exists as ________ and ______.
-Break milk
Abundant
Monomer and dimer
IgD:
-Usually expressed as _____.
-No ______ functional role.
BCR
Known
IgE:
-Only ______ amounts are produced.
-Efficient at inducing __________ of granulocytes
-May be protective against _______
-Associated with _________.
Small
Degranulation
Helminths
Allergies
__________ _________ ________ states that antigens select T and B cells for expansion.
Clonal selection theory
The presence of antigen stimulates the _______ T and B cells into mitosis and differentiation that leads to a large pool of antigen-specific __________ lymphocytes.
Naive
Effector
As the infection is cleared, _________ becomes limiting and most of the responding lymphocytes die. The remainign cells serve as _______ cells, poised to engage the pathogen should it recur.
Antigen
Memory
List the 2 different types of antigens recognized by B cells:
1. T-independant (do not require T cell help)
2. T-dependant (requires T cell help)
T-independant are non-_________, cannot class ______ from IgM to others, and do not induce ________ immunity.
Proteinaceous
Switch
Durable
T-Dependant antigens are _________, they do class switch from IgM to Ig(G, A or E) and usually provide ______-term immunity.
Proteins
Long