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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The immune responses principle objective is the _________ of infectious threats.
Most of the time, containment requires elimination of the microbe, known as __________, but sometimes just requires ___________.
The immune response is inherantly __________.
Disease and death caused by the immune response is termed __________.
_________ __________ ________ (PRR) are proteins that bind to a broad-spectrum of microbial products.
Pattern recognition receptors
Two examples of things that PRR's recognize:
1. Lipopolysaccharides
2. dsRNA
The two phases of the immune response are:
1. The innate phase
2. The adaptive phase
The innate immune response is considered "________". Because...
nonspecific (because it recognizes common molecules of microbes)
Molecules of the innate phase are ever-present, thus act immediatly upon a _______ _________.
Danger signal
The ________ immune response becomes apparent a few days after _________ and is principally mediated by ___ cells and ____ cells.
T cells and B cells
T cells secrete _________, which are proteins, that mediate local immune responses.
B cells secrete high ________ ___________ that noncovalently bind to microbes and their products.
Affinity antibodies
B cells and T cells control the great majority of infections, provide long-term ________ to infectious agents and are responsible for ______________.
__________ of _______ are those where microbes have an opportunity to access the body. An example would be the _________ membranes.
Portals of entry
List the six types of first-line defenses:
1. Skin
2. Mucosa
3. PRR, including toll-like receptors
4. Complement proteins
5. Inflammation
6. Fever
Complement proteins
-Synthesized in liver
-When temp goes up, these bind to microbes so phagocytic cells can see the pathogens.
Caused by cytokines and tissue damage. Body's attempt to seal off the potential infection site
List the 3 types of toxic substances in mucosa:
1. Defensins, antimicrobial peptides ~30 aa long
2. Peroxidase, an enzyme that causes oxidatino of microbial products
3. Lysozyme degrades peptidoglycan
_________ ______ are the bacteria that inhabit the body and protect against other infectious agents.
Normal flora
The skin posseses the water-tight protein polymer _______ that is resistant to penetration.
All cells in the immune system arise in the _______ ________.
Bone marrow
_______ cells of various developmental maturity exist in the bone marrow and are _________ cells for immune and blood cells.
__________ is the process of generating and maintaining immune and blood cells.
The process of ________ and _______ ______ formation is mostly unknown and considered the Holy Grail of immunology.
Blood cell
Special cytokines, termed ________ _______ ________ (CFS) play a prominant role in hematopoiesis, but bone marrow _________ cells are also required.
Colony stimulation factors
Stromal cells
Granulocytes contain toxic substances, like _________. The 3 types of Granulocytes are:
1. Neutrophils
2. Basophils
3. Eosinophils
Highly phagocytic and produce oxidative substances
Basophils and ______ cells contribute to inflammation.
Thought to play a role in containing parasitic infections.
Mononuclear phagocytes
Monocytes exit blood vessels and differentiate into macrophages that play a prominant role in constraining microbes to the infected tissue
Dendritic cells
-In all tissues
-Provide a link btwn innate and adaptive immune response by stimulating naive T cells
________ _______ (NK) cells kill infected cells and cause _________ damage by also killing adjacent uninfected cells. These are a type of _________ cell.
Natural killer
Lymphocytes are part of the ________ response and include 2 main types of cells:
1. T cells
2. B cells
What are the 2 types of T cells?
1. Helper T cells that secrete cytokines
2. Cytotoxic T cells kill other cells that harbor pathogens, "assasins"
What do the B cells of the adaptive immune response do?
Secrete antibodies
-secreted by all body cells
-More then 60 known in vertebrates
-they have a dramatic impact on immune responses
Cytokines bind to specific ________ __________, which results in a physiologic change in the _________ cell.
Cytokine receptors
What are the four types of cytokines?
1. Chemokines
2. Interferons
3. Interleukins
4. Tumor necrosis factors
Recruit immune cells into infected tissue ("help!")
Parcipitate in inflammation
Confer anticiral status upon cells
Largest group of cytokines
Mediate immune response
Tumor necrosis factors
-Initiate inflammation
-Induce programmed cell death of infected cells
Evolution has provided a number of ________ _______ capable of recognizing microbial threats.
Sensing systems
Some _________ proteins recognize bacterial cell walls and perforate them, others bind to bacteria and facilitate their __________.
Interferons induce teh expression of ______ __, which digests dsRNA.
RNase L
________ cells ahve receptors on their surfaces that bind to bacterial products and _________ proteins.
Phagocytic cells are recruited to sites of infection by __________.
After engulfment of microbes into a __________, the cells are killed by fusion of the phagosome with a __________, which contains toxic compounds.
Inflammation is a mechanism for __________ of microbes in the infected site.
Inflammation is a ________-______ sword. Too little and the microbes can go ________, too much and it can lead to ____________ _______.
Double-edged sword
Too little --> virus goes systemic
Too much --> cardiovascular shock
What is the first step in the inflammation process?
Infected or traumatized tissue secretes chemokines
What is the 2nd step in the inflammation process?
Circulating leukocytes exit the blood vessel (diapedesis) by squeezing btwn capillar endothelial cells
What is the 3rd step in the inflammation process?
Once in the tissue, the cells secrete inflammatory proteins that augment capillar leakage.
Capillary leakage involves the loosening of _______ _______ btwn capillary cells. ________ then leaks out. If the holes are big enough, ______ can also leak out, this is called a _________.
Tight junctions
Bacterial ________ are potent inducers of inflammation. They bind to macrophages and elicit ______ ________ ________ production.
Tumor necrosis factor
If enough macrophages are stimulated by bacterial __________, as in septicemia, then ________ _________ can occur.
Septic shock
In septic shock, so much ______ leaks out of the capillaries that the circulatory system ________.
_________ __________ ________ ensues in septic shcok, causing systematic blood clots and death.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
Fever is caused by the production of _________-1 which is a ________ and travels to the hypothalamus in the brain and increases body temp.
The four classes of cytokines are:
1. Chemokines
2. Interferons (Confer antivirus status upon cells)
3. Interleukins (Mediate immune responses)
4. Tumor necrosis factors (Initiate inflammation)