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38 Cards in this Set

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parasitic worms are divided into two major phylums:
Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
Nematoda (roundworms)
This phylum has:
Few developed organs
hermaphroditic
Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
This CLASS of flatworm has a body plan that includes:
scolex (head region) and a
gravid proglottid which contains up to 200,000 eggs
Cestoda
In a “Generic” tapeworm life cycle:
can have multiple ____(1 to a few)
adults shed _________
egg taken up by _________ (beef, pork, fish, invertebrate)
larvae hatch and _________
_______ eats meat from undercooked organism, larvae develops into adult
hosts
eggs with feces
intermediate host
travel to muscles
definitive host
Taenia saginata/Taenia solium
definitive host –> intermediate host –>
humans only
cattle or pig
Taenia saginata/Taenia solium Life cycle:
eggs/gravid proglottid released with _____ from definitive host
eggs _____ by intermediate host
eggs hatch, larvae penetrate intestines and travel to _____
called _______
undercooked meat – humans ingest cysticerci
worms develop into adults –
feces
ingested
muscle
cysticerci
sexual reproduction
heavy” infections of this can cause cramping, vomiting, diarrhea

diagnosis presence of eggs and/or proglottids in stool
T. saginata/T. solium -
Taenia egg
smooth & thick shell
infection with T. solium can lead to _________:
-larvae travels to muscles and/or organs (can be up to 20cm in size)
-Sparganosis
cysticercosis
pt prents with B12 deficiency. previously asymptomatic but with history of eating undercooked frewshwater fish (Great Lakes or Pacific Coast)
Diphyllobothrium latum- fish tapeworm
Diphyllobothrium latum life cycle:
-_____/eggs released in stool
-if released in water: hatch releasing coracidium (_____)
-coracidium ingested by _____
crustacean eaten by ____
fish eaten ______
by worm develops into _____
proglottids
larvae
crustacean
fish
human
adults
Diagnosis of Diphyllobothrium
eggs/proglottids
Echinococcus granulosus:
After human eats eggs, egg hatches and oncosphere released travels to organs and develops into _______
hydatid cyst
Definitive host eats the cyst, protoscoleces ______ and develop into adults
evaginate
Echinococcus associated with
close contact with dogs
Pathology of Echinococcus is often due to damage due to cyst. If cyst breaks it can lead to _________
anaphylatic shock
Diagnosis of Echinococcus
abnormal growth (slow growing tumor)
ELISA for immune response against organism
_________ is the most common tapeworm of man usually found in children. Life cycle can be completed with ONE host
Hymenolepis nana- dwarf tapeworm
With hymenolepis you can get __________
autoinfection
_____ are the normal reservoir for Hymenolepis
Rats
Diagnosis of Hymenolepis is made by _________
eggs in stool
Intestinal nematodes are _______
roundworms
Ascaris lumbricoides is diagnosed based on presence of eggs. Describe them
mammillated (bumpy)
eggs hatch in intestines
larvae burrow into capillaries, travel in lymphatics or blood to liver and then lungs
burrow out of lungs and crawl up, get swallowed
larvae develop into adults and sexually reproduce
eggs released with feces
Life cycle of Life cycle
Ascaris is mostly _________ but heavy infections can lead to ________
asymptomatic
burst of intestines
Enterobius vermicularis is also known as ______
pinworm
Enterobius vermicularis has ONE HOST. females lay sticky eggs around ______.
_______ and _______ occur.
Dz is mostly asymptomatic but may cause(itching) or may cause appendicitis
perianal area
autoinfection
retroinfection
Diagnosis of Enterobius vermicularis includes the ________
scotch” tape method
identification of eggs
Trichuris trichiura is also known as the ______
whipworm
Trichuris trichiura may cause _________ in children (inflammatory)
rectal prolapse
Diagnosis of Trichuris trichiura is
eggs in stool
Stronglyloides stercoralis is the ________
threadworm
Stronglyloides infection from the penetration of the larvae into the ____ -> ____ -> ____ -> ____ -> ____
skin - blood – lungs – throat – intestines
Stronglyloides egg can hatch in intestines and larvae penetrate mucosa and then re-cycle to get back to intestines (______)
autoinfection
Stronglyloides infections are mostly _______
asymptomatic
Diagnosis of Stronglyloides is eggs or _____ in feces
larvae
Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus are ______
Hookworms
hookworms worms ingest host blood can see _____ in heavy infections
anemia