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76 Cards in this Set

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Corynebacterium diphtheriae
diphtheria; cutaneous diphtheria Tx: anti-toxin sera; penicillin and erythromycin
Corynebacterium minutissimum
erythrasma (chronic superficial infection of the pubis groin and toe webs) Tx: erythromycin
Helicobacter pylori
acute gastritis Tx: a PPI; bismuth; amoxicillin and clarithromycin or tetracycline and metronidazole
Nisseria meningitidis
meningitis; bacteremia and sepsis w/o meningitis; bacteremia and sepsis w/ meningitis Tx: (empirical due to emergency) cephalosporins (cefotaxime or ceftriaxone) and prophylaxis would be rifampin or fluoroquinalone
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Genitouninary tract infections; rectal infections; disseminated infections; Ophthalmia neonatorum Tx: (Ceftriaxone or Floroquinalone) plus (doxycycline (for Chlamydia) or azithromycin); erythromycin eye drops for newborn
Moraxella catarrhalis
bronchitis and pneumonia in elderly patients w/ chronic lung disease; 3rd MCC of sinusitis; otitis media; and AECB Tx: anything but penicillin (cephalosporin; fluoroquinalone; beta lactam w/ inhibitor)
Leptospira interrogans
leptospirosis Tx: penicillin (Doxycycline for prophylaxis)
Borellia burgdorferei
Lyme disease Tx: Doxycycline or Amoxicillin or ceftriaxone
Borellia recurrentis
epidemic relapsing fever Tx: tetracyclines
Borrellia (not recurrentis)
endemic relapsing fever Tx: tetracyclines
Treponema pallidum
syphilis; neonatal syphilis; Tx: Penicillin or Erythromycin or tetracycline
Treponema pallidum endemicum
endemic syphilis (bejel) Tx: Penicillin or Erythromycin or tetracycline
Treponema pallidum pertenue
Yaws Tx: Penicillin or Erythromycin or tetracycline
Treponema carateum
Pinta Tx: Penicillin or Erythromycin or tetracycline
Mycobacteria tuberculosis
tuberculosis Tx: (Peri therapy) pyrazinamide; ethambutol; rifampin; and isoniazid for at least 6 mo (rifampin and isoniazid only if pt responds well to 4 drug therapy); Use DOT if person not responsible (latent TB Tx: isoniazid or rifampin +/- ethambutol)
Mycobacteria leprae
Leprosy (Hansen’s disease) Tx: dapsone; rifampin: clofazimine for several years and dapsone for life
Mott (Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare; M. kanasii)
TB Tx: clarithromycin; rifampin; ethambutol for long periods (add ethionamide or cycloserine for progressive disease)
M. marinum
skin infections and granulomas following trauma in swimming pools or handling fish
M. ulcerans
skin infections in Australia and tropics
M. scrofulaceum
scrofula (cervical lymphadenitis) in children Tx: surgical excision of lesions
Shigella (S. sonnei in US; S. flexneri in third world; S. Boydii)
shigellosis (type of inflammatory diarrhea or bacterial dysentery Tx: Fluid and salt replacement (severe cases maybe macrolide or fluoroquinalone)
Shigella dysenteria
severe dysentery with HUS Tx: Fluid and salt replacement (severe cases maybe macrolide or fluoroquinalone)
Salmonella typhi
Typhoid (Enteric) fever Tx: fluid and salt replacement; cephalosporin (ceftriaxone) or a floroquinolone for several weeks
Salmonella paratyphi
Paratyphoid fever Tx: fluid and salt replacement; cephalosporin (ceftriaxone) or a floroquinolone for several weeks
Non-typhoidal Salmonella
gastroenteritis; bacteremia with endocarditis and arthritis is uncommon Tx: fluid and salt replacement; antibiotics for immunocompromised or age extremes [cephalosporin (ceftriaxone) or a floroquinolone for several weeks]
Yersinia enterocolitica or Y. pseudotuberculosis
yersiniosis (gastroenteritis with symptoms of fever AB pain and diarrhea); complications (skin rash; joint pain; bacteremia) Tx: Fluoroquinolone or TMP/sulfa for sepsis (unclear for gasteroenteritis)
E. coli
UTI (mcc); bacteremia; abdominal infections involving bowel perforations; Nosocomial infections Tx: Fluoroquinolones; ampicillin +/- inhibitor; Cefotaxime; cefazolin; TMP/sulfa
ETEC
travelers diarrhea Tx: fluid and salt replacement but antibiotics only if caught early (Fluoroquinolones)
E. Coli K1
meningitis in neonates Tx: Fluoroquinolones; ampicillin +/- inhibitor; Cefotaxime; cefazolin; TMP/sulfa
EHEC
inflammatory diarrhea; HUS syndrome Tx: fluid and salt replacement (no antibiotics)
Enterobacter cloacae
opportunistic infections (usually in hospital settings) in neonates; burn patients; and immunocompromised patients
Serratia marcescens
opportunitic infections (usually in hospital settings) in neonates; burn patients; and immunocompromised patients
Citrobacter
opportunitic infections (usually in hospital settings) in neonates; burn patients; and immunocompromised patients
Proteus mirabilis
UTIs (mostly in nosocomial setting); opportunitic infections
Klebsiella pneumoniae
community-acquired necrotizing lobar pneumonia (in patients compromised by alcoholism; diabetes; chronic lung diseases); UTIs (in nosocomial setting)
Klebsiella ozaenae
atrophic rhinitis
Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis
destructive granuloma of nose and pharynx
Listeria monocytogenes
meningitis (neonates); flu-like illness that can progress to bacteremia and meningitis (pregnant women); flu-like illness with acute febrile gastroenteritis that can progress to bacteremia and meningitis (immunocompromised) Tx: ampicillin +/- aminoglycoside
Campylobacter jejuni
Gastroenteritis (travelers diarrhea; Backpackers diarrhea); rarely bacteremia and systemic infections; Tx: fluid and salt replacement; (antibiotics after ID erythromycin and fluoroquinalone)
Campylobacter Coli
Gastroenteritis; more common bacteremia and systemic infections; Tx: fluid and salt replacement; (antibiotics after ID erythromycin and fluoroquinalone)
Vibrio cholerae
cholera Tx: Fluid and salt replacement most important; tetracyclines and fluoroquinaolones
Vibrio parahaemolyticus
mild to cholera-like diarrhea Tx: fluid and salt replacement; tetracycline
Vibrio vulnificus
cellulitis progressing to vesicles or bullae and tissue necrosis; bacteremia and septicemia Tx: tetracyclines or aminoglycosides
Anaerobes (bacteroides; prevotella; fusobacteria; prophyromonas; propionibacteria; peptococcus; peptostreptococcus)
intra-abdominal infections; periodontal infections; gynecological infections; community-acquired aspiration pneumonia; Acne; Bacteremia; sinusitis; otitis media; brain abscess; skin and soft tissue infections Tx: fluoroquinolone (levofloxacin) + metronidazole or cefotetan or piperacillin/tazobactam (Intraabdominal; gyn and aspiration pneumonia) cefotetan or piperacillin/tazobactam (periodontal) topical peroxides w/ erythromycin and clindamycin (acne)
Clostridia perfringens
soft tissue infections (wound contamination to myonecrosis[gas gangrene]); food poisoning; necrotizing enteritis (pig-bel) Tx: surgical intervention and high dose penicillin (tissue infections); fluid and salt replacement (food poisoning)
Clostridia tetani
neonatal tetanus; tetanus Tx: antitoxin w/ metronidazole or penicillin (vaccine prevention is best)
Clostridia botulinum
foodborne botulism; infant botulism; wound botulism Tx: antitoxin; symptom support; (penicillin for wound botulism)
Clostridia difficile
antibiotic associated diarrhea Tx: discontinue or change antibiotics or vancomycin or metronidazole
Chlamydia trachomatis
(ABC) [Africa; blindness; chronic infection] trachoma; (D-K) conjunctivitis; infant pneumonia; non-gonococcal urethritis; (L1-3) lymphogranuloma venerum Tx: tetracylines but azithromycin best (one shot); erythromycin eye drops (neonatal prevention)
Chlamydia pneumoniae
pneumonia and bronchitis Tx: macrolides or tetracycline
Chlamydia psittaci
psittocosis Tx: tetracyclines
Rickettsia ricketsii
Rocky mountain spotted fever Tx: tetracyclines
Rickettsia akari
rickettsia pox
Rickettsia prowazeckii
Epidemic (louse-borne) typhus Tx: tetracycline
Rickettsia typhi
Endemic (flea borne or murine) typhus Tx: tetracycline
Orienta tsutsugamushi
scrub typhus Tx: tetracyclines
Brucella abortus; B. melitensis; B. Canis; B. suis
brucellosis Tx: Doxycycline plus rifampin or gentamycin for 6 weeks
Francisella Tularensis
ulceroglandular tularemia; oculoglandular tularemia; glandular tularemia; Pneumonic tularemia; Typhoidal tularemia Tx: streptomycin or gentamycin or tetracycline or fluoroquinolone
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
Erysipeloid (non-suppurative); diffuse cutaneous form or systemic form sometimes associated with endocarditis Tx: Penicillin
Coxiella burnetti
Q fever (chronic infections with subacute endocarditis and /or hepatitis Tx: Doxycycline (acute infections) tetracyclines and either rifampin or fluoroquinolone for 2-3 years (chronic infection)
Ehrlichia chaffeensis
Human monocytic ehrlichiosis Tx: Doxycycline
Ehrlichia ewingii
Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis Tx: Doxycycline
Anaplasma phagocytophilum
Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis Tx: doxycycline
Yersinia pestis
bubonic plague; pneumonic plague Tx: streptomycin or aminoglycoside or tetracycline or chloramphenicol
Bacillus anthracis
cutaneous anthrax; pulmonary anthrax; GI anthrax Tx: fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin) doxycycline (vaccine is inactivated factor II)
Burkholderia pseudomallei
wide spectrum of diseases from asymptomatic to meliodosis (skin infections
Pseudomonas aeuginosa
pulmonary infections; skin infections; UTIs; Ear infections; others Tx: two or more antibiotics ( betalactam [piperacillin; ticarcillin;ceftazidime; cefepime] plus aminoglycoside [tobramycin orgentamicin]
Enterococcus
infect only debilitated patients UTIs; Bacteremia; Intra-abdominal abcess and wound infection Tx: hard esp for those with bacteremia and endocarditis (many resistant to vancomycin [VRE] (Quinupristin/dalfopristin or Linezolid are effective against E. faecium) have to do antibiotic resistance culture (monotherapy with fluoroquinolone or tetracycline often associated with rapid development of resistance)
Actinomyces Israeli
actinomycosis Tx: weeks or months of penicillin
Nocardia asteroids; N. brasiliensis
nocardiosis (pneumonia); cutaneous infection Tx: TMP/ sulfa for many months and surgical drainage
Pasturella multocida
rapidly progressing cellulites along with tenosynovitis; abscess; osteomyelitis; septic arthritis Tx: Amoxicillin-clavulanate
Eikenella corrodens
human bite wound infections
Streptobacillus monoliformis
Rat bite fever Tx: penicillin
Spirillum minus
Rat bite fever Tx: penicillin
Bartonella henselae
Cat scratch disease; hepatosplenic cat scratch disease; bacillary angiomatosis Tx: macrolides (azithromycin)
Bartonella Quintana
trench fever; bacillary angiomatosis w/o peliosis hepatitis Tx: macrolides