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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
enzyme RNA polymerase...
synthesizes a strand of RNA from one strand of double stranded DNA, which serves as a template during transcription
the starting point for transcription is
the promoter; the region of DNA that is the end point of transcription is the terminator
DNA polymerase in replication
proofreads new molecules of DNA and removes mismatched bases before continuing DNA synthesis
gene
segment of DNA, sequence of nucleotides that codes for a functional product, usually a protein
when a gene is expressed, DNA is transcribed to produce...
RNA; mRNA is then translated into proteins
the DNA in a cell is duplicated before the cell divides...
each daughter cell recieves the same genetic information
Bacterial DNA is ...
circular; the chromosome of E Coli contains about 4 million base pairs and is about 1000 times longer than the cell.
mRNA associates with ...
ribosomes which consist of rRNA and protein
codons are ---
three base segments of mRNA that specify amino acids
the genetic code refers to ...
the relationship among nucleotide base sequence of DNA, the corresponding codons of mRNA, and the amino acids for which the codons code.
the genetic code is degenerate, that is...
most amino acids are coded for by more than one codon
of the 64 codons, ___ are sense codons and ___ are nonsense codons (which do not code for amino acids, just to stop).
61; 3
the ribosome moves along the mRNA starnd as amino acids are joined to form a grwoing polypeptide;
.
mRNA is read in the ____ direction
5' to 3' direction
translation ends with a ...
stop codon
when the inducer is absent, the repressor...
binds to the operator and no mRNA is synthesized
when the inducer is present, it binds to the repressor so that it cannot bind to the operator, thus ....
mRNA is made, and enzyme synthesis is induced.
Genetic recombination
the rearrangement of genes from separate groups of genes ususually involves DNA from differnent organisms ; it contributes to genetic diversity
plasmids are self replicating...
circular molecules of carrying genes that are not usually essential for cell's survival.
Transduction in bacteria...
DNA is passed from one bacterium to another in a bacteriophage and is then incorporated into the recipients DNA.
conjugation
requires contact between living cells
transposons...
are found in the main chromosomes of organisms, in plasmids, and in the genetic
a base substitution occurs when...
one base pair in DNA is replaced with another pair
ultraviolet radiation is non-ionizing...
it causes bonding between adjacent thymines
transposon are small segments of DNA that .....
move from one region to another region on the same chromosome. or to a different chromosome or a plasmid. They can be simple or complex
What startes synthesis in replication?
DNA polymerase starts and finishes process of replication. RNA polymerase starts the synthesis by adding a short stretch
In Replication, what does DNA polymerase do to RNA as it makes a small piece of DNA?
DNA polymerase digests away the RNA as it makes a small piece of DNA. The small units are then joined by DNA ligase.
the transfer of DNA from a donor to a recipient cell by a bacteriaphage
transduction
the transfer of DNA from a donor to a recipient as naked DNA in a solution
transformation
Bacteria can acquire antibiotic resistance by
mutation, insertion of transposons, and acquiring plasmids
these have horizontal gene transfer...
conjugation, integration of a transposon, transduction, transformation
Ionizing raditiation causes _____________. Non ionizing radiation causes _________.
mutagen that causes the formation of highly reactive ions. Non ioninzing causes a mutagen that causes the formation of pyrimidine dimers.
what is best to sterilize heat labile solutions?
filtration
In bacteria, transcription and translation are...
coupled
UV radiation causes...
thiamine dimers
DNA has thyamine. RNA has ______
uricil
transposons
jumping genes
complex transposons
carry other genes (not just insertion sequences)
vectors:
carry new recombinant DNA to desired cells.
shuttle vectors:
can exist in several different species
_____ and _____ can be vectors
plasmids and viruses
What encourages antibiotic resistance?
outdated or weakened antibiotics, antibioitics in animal feed, failure to complete prescription, using someone else's prescription. These can lead to the pathogen developing resistance genes which can prevent penetration of its cell wall, or lead to rapid efflux
cDNA is made from ______ by _______.
mRNA by reverse transcriptase
resverse transcriptase makes _______ from ________.
DNA from mRNA
when the inducer is absent, the repressor...
binds to the operator and no mRNA is synthesized
when the inducer is present, it binds to the repressor so that it cannot bind to the operator, thus ....
mRNA is made, and enzyme synthesis is induced.
Genetic recombination
the rearrangement of genes from separate groups of genes ususually involves DNA from differnent organisms ; it contributes to genetic diversity
plasmids are self replicating...
circular molecules of carrying genes that are not usually essential for cell's survival.
Transduction in bacteria...
DNA is passed from one bacterium to another in a bacteriophage and is then incorporated into the recipients DNA.
conjugation
requires contact between living cells
transposons...
are found in the main chromosomes of organisms, in plasmids, and in the genetic
a base substitution occurs when...
one base pair in DNA is replaced with another pair
ultraviolet radiation is non-ionizing...
it causes bonding between adjacent thymines
transposon are small segments of DNA that .....
move from one region to another region on the same chromosome. or to a different chromosome or a plasmid. They can be simple or complex
What startes synthesis in replication?
DNA polymerase starts and finishes process of replication. RNA polymerase starts the synthesis by adding a short stretch
In Replication, what does DNA polymerase do to RNA as it makes a small piece of DNA?
DNA polymerase digests away the RNA as it makes a small piece of DNA. The small units are then joined by DNA ligase.
the transfer of DNA from a donor to a recipient cell by a bacteriaphage
transduction
the transfer of DNA from a donor to a recipient as naked DNA in a solution
transformation