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33 Cards in this Set

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What are protozoa?
Single celled eukaryotes. Classified in four main groups including flagellates and sporazoan.
What are the most common ones that we've talked about?
Giardia Lambia (zooflagellate) Cryptosporidium parvum
Cyclospora
Toxoplasma gondii
(all three being sporazoa)
Which is the leading cause of non-bacterial diarrhea in north america?
Giardia Lambia
Who discovered giardia lambia?
Leeuwenhook in 1700s. Looked at his poo.
Describe giardia lambia organism
Single cell, two nucleii, no mitochrondia. Requires host. Has flagella.
How does one get sick from Giardia lambia?
Ingestion of contaminated food/water or direct contact w/fecal matter. Cysts can exist in both are are infectious.
What is the disease caused by giardia lambia called?
-Incubation time?
-Dose?
-symptoms?
Giardiasis
About a week+
Low dose!! 10 cysts!
Smelly diarrhea, bloating/gas & cramps, fatigue and weightloss
What is Cryptosporidium Parvum most often associated with?
Water supplies. Largest outbreak in milwaukee w/contaminated water; other outbreaks w/public fountains.
Describe Crypto P's structure
Single cell, single nucleus, inactive mitrochondria
How does one get infected from Crypto P?
Ingestion of oocyst. Oocysts excreted in feces are infectious.
Decribe the cycle of Cypto P. in humans
1. ingestion of oocysts
2. ocyst excysts in SI
3. parasitic reproduction and oocysts produced
4. oocysts extreted in feces
5. oocysts sporulate in enviroment
cycle repeats
Where is Crypto P found?
Water and animals including fish, humans, other animals
Diease of crypto P called?
-Inc time?
-Dose?
-Main symptom? Others?
Cryptosporidiosis
2-10 days
<10 oocysts
Watery diarrhea is main symptoms. Also weight loss, cramps, etc.
How to treat crypto P?
Yikes! No treatment. Can't prevent w/chlorine, either since it's ineffective. Make sure water supply is clean. Avoid poo.
What type of eurkayote is Cyclospora? What food is most often associated?
Sporazoa
Commonly associated w/fruits/veggies
What is the disease caused by cyclospora?
How does one get it?
Incubation time?
Cyclosporiasis
Must ingest oocysts; HOWEVER - oocysts are not infectious immediately in exctreted poo!!
Inc = 1 week
How is cyclospora treated?
Anti-protozoans can be used in this case (unlike with cryptosporidium).
What type of eukaryote is Toxoplasma gondii?
Sporazoa (again)
What is toxoplasma gondii associated with? And who is most susceptible?
CATS! Feces of cats. Animals can also be infected. Oocysts in cat and "tissue cyst" from animals.

Pregnant women should avoid. Infection can pass to unborn child and cause metal retardation, blindness, epilipsy.
What is the incubation time of toxoplasma gondii?
What is the disease called?
Long - 5 to 25 days
Toxoplasmosis
What is the organism most often associated with undercooked pork? What type of organism is this?
Trichinella spiralis
It's a "nematode" = worm
What are the symptoms of trichinosis?
Two rounds:
1. after 1-2 days - GI symptoms
2. After 2-8 weeks: muscle pain, face swelling
What are the main molds that cause foodborne illness?
Fusarium
Aspergillum
Penicillum
What is the mold called that is toxic?
Mycotoxins - included many different ones included aflatoxins (green), vomitoxins, etc.
What are aflatoxins?
Molds produced by the aspergillus species that are carcinogenic. Also can cause cirrhosis of liver.
Where do aflatoxins typically grow?
Corn, grains, nuts. Milk too.
What "type" aflatoxin most common?
Type B1 most common and most potent. M1 found in milk.
Are any mycotoxins regulated?
Only aflatoxin. It has "action levels" set by government.
What are types of aspergilus?
flavus
paraciticus
nominus
What is vomitoxin?
A mycotoxin produced by fusarium species. Appear pink/purple. Grows on corn, wheat, barley, oats.
What is:
Zearalenone?
Mycotoxin produced by fusarium. Estrogenic toxin.
What is:
Fumonisins?
Mycotoxin from fusarium. Esophageal cancer.
Name a toxin produces by Penicillum
Ochratoxins; coffee!! Cereal, bread, wine. Causes kidney failure.