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216 Cards in this Set

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Name the different types of microorganisms
Protozoa, algae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, helminths
What does the nomencalture of an organism consist of?
The genus(capitalized) and species

Both names either underlined or capitalized
These microbes are called prokaryotes
bacteria and archea
the genetic material is not membrane bound
prokaryotes
rod like bacteria _.
spherical or ovoid _.
corkscrew or curved _.
bacillus
cocci
spiral
Cell wall composed of a carbohydrate and protein complex called peptidoglycan found on these microbes.
Bacteria
Prokaryote cells with no peptidoglycan found in extreme environments
Archea
archea that produce methane as a waste product from respiration
methanogens
salt loving archea found in the Great Salt Lake and the Dead Sea
extreme halophiles
archea found in hot springs
extreme thermophiles
Can archea cause disease in humans?
No
Microbes with a distinct membrane bound nucleus containing DNA
Eukaryotes
Microbes that can be either unicellular or multicellular
Fungi
The cell walls of fungi are composed mainly of _.
chitin
unicellar form of fungi
yeast
Reproduction by dividing into 2 daughter cells
Binary fission
These microbes can reproduce either asexually or sexually
Ameoba, Protozoa and Algae
These microbes obtain food soleyby absorbing solutions of organic material from the environment
Fungi
These microbes move by psudeopods, flagella, or cilia
Protozoa
An amoeba is under what catagory of microbes?
Protozoa
Parasites that live off hosts are what type of microbe?
Protozoa
Photosynthetic eukaryotes are called?
Algae
The cells wals of algae, like plants are made up of the carbohydrate called _?
Cellulose
Alage need light, water and Carbon Dioxide for growth and food. What DONT they need from the environment?
Organic compounds
These acellular microbes are composed of a nucleic acid core with a protein coat and must have a host to surive
Viruses
If helminths are multicellular parasidic worms why are they studied in microbilogy?
The larvae of flat and roundworms start as microscopic
Who and when were the first to observe cells
Hooke, 1665
Observed the first "animacules" between 1673-1723
Leeuenhock
The belief that life could come from nonliving things
Spontaneous generation
In 1668 disputed spontaneous generation theory by experimenting with meat
Reddi
The theory that living cells can ony arise from prexsisting living cells
Biogenesis
What was Pasteur trying to prove when he did the broth in flasks experiment?
That microbes were in the air that cause spoilage
Why did the flask with the bent neck not become contaminated in the Pasteur experiment?
the microbes could not pass the bend in the flask to contaminate the broth.
When was the Golden Age of Microbiology?
1857-1914
In 1840's discovered handwashing reduced spreading microbes during childbirth
Semmeiweis
In 1860's discovered disenfectants could be used to control infections
Lister
A series of experiental steps to directly relate a specific microbe to a specific disease
Kochs Postulates
in 1796 first to use a living viral agent to produce immunity
Jenner
The 1st antibiotic, a fungus discovered by Flemming in 1928
Penicillin
Technology used to take a hybrid of human and bacterial DNA inserted into bateria to produce a large amount of desired proteins
recombiant DNA technology aka genetic engineering
Using microbes to clean up pollutants and toxic wastes
Bioremediation
Using toxins excreted by microbes to destroy insects
insect control
Using microbes to breakdown liquids and organic materials into co2, nitrates, amonia etc
Sewage Treatment
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes similar in that they all contain these 4 things.
nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, and carbs
Why is it impt. to know the structure of bacteria?
to know its function, how to kil it, and to help identify it
Visible bacteria after they've duplicated
colony
bacteria in:
pairs = _
chains = _
groups of 4 = _
cubes = _
grapelike clusters = _
diplo
strepto
tetrads
sarcinae
stapho
The gelatinous coat surrounding prokaryote cells that is sugar based (EPS), protein based or both
Glycocalyx
Firmly attatched glycocalyx, its presence can be determined by doing a negative stain
Capsule
loosely attatched glycocalyx
Slime layer
the degree in which a pahogen causes disease
virulence
the ingestion and digestion of microorganisms
phagocytosis
what is the function of a cell capsule
helps it stick to surfaces
makes it more virulent
helps the bacteria from dehydrating
what is the distinguishing feature of spirochete bacteria?
axial filament under a sheath propel them
why dont bacilli form tetrads or clusters?
they only divide long the short axis
bacteria that lack flagella
atrichous
arrangement of flagella
monotrichous = _ flagella
amphitrichous = _ flagella
lophotrichous = _ flagella
Peritrichous = _ flagella
1 single flagella
tuft of flagella on each end
2 or more at 1 or both ends
flagella all over the cell
the movement of a bacterium toward or way from from a stimulus is called?
taxis
the flagellar protein _ is useful in distinguising the _ or specific species of gram negative bateria.
h antigen

serovar
fimbrae and pili are found on many gram _ bacteria
negative
what is the diff functions of fimbrae and pili?
fimbrae-attatchment
pili-DNA transfer
name 3 functions of bacteria cell walls
1. prevent rupture when pressure greater inside than outide cell

2. helps maintain shape

3. serves to anchor flagella
clinically why is the cell wall important?
cell wall contribues to the ability of the cell to cause disease.

Also it is the site of action of some antibiotics
describe the composition of peptidogycan in the bacterial cell wall in gram pos bacteria
a repeating disaccharide attathed by polypeptides to form a lattice that protects the cell
how does penicillin work?
it interferes with the linking of the peptidoglycan rows by peptide cross bridges
what acid is present in gram pos cells walls that is missing in gram neg
teihoic acids
what is the charge of teichoic acids? and what does this charge mean in regards to the cell?
negative, so they regulate the movement of cations (positive ions) in and out of the cell
name 3 functions of teichoic acids
1. regulate movement of cations in/out cell

2. assume a role in cell growth

3. prevent lysis (cell destruction)

4. provide antigenic specificity (surface identifier)
describe the composition of the cell wall in gram neg bacteria
the peptidoglycan layer is sandwiched between the lipoprotein layer and the plasma membrane
what is the antigen (surface identifier) found on the outer wall of gram neg cell walls
O polysaccharides
what is the charge of a gram neg cell and why is it important?
negative, impt for evading phagocytosis
the outter layer of gram neg cells is made of?
LPS, lipoproteins and phospholipids
what channels found in the outter membrane allow passage of molecules in gram neg cells?
porins
what makes a gram neg cell subjet to mechanical breakage?
very little peptidoglycan
2 very important characteristics of the outter membrane (LPS) in gram neg cells
1. O polysaccharides (flags) on surface to dist species

2. lipid portion of LPS is an endotoxin and is toxic when found in the gastrointestinal tract or bloodstream of a host
endotoxin found in LPS of gram neg cells
Lipid A
why does crystal violet stain both gram pos and neg cells?
bec. it enters the cytoplasm of both cells types
what happens when alcohol is administered to the crystal violet treated gram neg cell?
the outter membrane is dissolved and small holes are left in the peptidoglycan so the crystal violet can diffuse
why would a gram pos cell give a gram neg stain response?
the cell may be dead or the culture is old
fluid filled space btwn outer membrane and plasma membrane containing enzymes and transport proteins, found in gram neg cells
periplasma
the smallest known bacteria that can grow and reproduce outside living host cells they dont have cell walls
Mycoplasma
bateria with no cell walls or peptidoglycan, they have pseudourien
archea
this membrane consists of a phospholipid bilayer and proteins
plasma membrane
what is missing from plasma membranes an what effect does this have on the rigidity of the membrane?
sterols, it means the membrane is less rigid
describe the structure of the plasma membrane
ea. phospolipd molecule has a water loving polar head and a pair of water fearing non polar fatty acid tails. the proteins can be peripheral (on the inner/outter bilayersurface) or integral (within the bilayer)
what is the fluid mosaic model?
the arrngement of phospholipds and proteins in the plasma membrane
what is the most important function of the plasma membrane?
selective permeability to allow/prevent certain ions/molecules from passing thru
what organelle is found in both eu/prokaryotic cells?
ribosomes
what is the difference btwn ribosomes found in pro vs. eu karyotic cells?
pro-smaller and less dense
what are the components found in the cytoplas of pro cells?
80% water, nuclear area, ribosomes,inclusions
the single long continuous and circularly arranged thread of DNA found in the nucleoid/nuclear area
baterial chromosome
extra DNA found here and may carry genes for antibiotic resistance
plasmids
reserve deposits within the cell are called
inclusions
inclusions that
are large and stain easily: _
contain glycogen and starch: _
contain enzymes for co2 fixaion: _
found in aquatic cells for buoyancy: _
contains iron oxide:_
metchromatic granules
polysacharide granules
carboxysomes
gas vacuoles
magnetosomes
found in gram pos cells these are dehydrated cells found inside the cell when nutrients are depleted
endospores
what 2 bacteria types are endospores commonly found in?
Clostridum and Bacillus
the formation of an endospore is called _. the regeneration on the endospore when conditions are right _.
sporulation
germination
what is the basis of classifying things?
now-DNA
then-physical characteristics/structureof the cell
why dont we classify viruses?
they are non living
what is used to classify prokaryotes?
similarities in nucleotide sequences in rRNA.
describe the breakdown of classes in prokaryotes
classes into orders
orders into families
families into genera
genera into species
How many Bergeys manuals are completed? how many more will follow and what do the manuals contain?
2 completed, 3 to complete.

bergey manual is the identification reference for bacteria
what other things are used to classify organisms in the 3 domain system besides the diff in rRNA
membrane lipid struture
transfer rRNA molecules
sensitivity to antibiotics
What are the components of the 5 Kingdom Theory
Monera-bacteria
Protists-protozoa and algae (animal and plant like)
Fungi
Plants
Animals
King Phillip Came Over From Great Spain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Why are the similarities of bacteria used to classify
because they cant sexually reproduce so similarities used to find species
how many divisions of bacteria are there are what is it based on?
4 divisions based on the ompoition of the cell wall
all cells derived from the same original cell, genetically identical
clone
same species but genetically different
strain
name the morphological characteristics used to classify bacteria
1. to id bacteria w/cell walls
2. diff auger used
3. antibodies used
4. using viruses on bacteria
5. measure fatty acid profiles
6. bacteria run thru strainer
7. fingerprint genetic code
1. differential staining
2. biocheical tests
3. serology
4. phage typing
5. fatty acid profiles
6. flow cytometry
7. DNA and RNA fingerprinting
the sum of the chemical reactions in an organism
metabolism
Exergonic reaction, degradative, HYDROLYTIC

the breakdown of complex organic compaunds into simpler ones
Catabolism
Endergonic reaction, biosynthetic, DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS

energy requiring reactions that build omples organic molecules from smaller ones
anabolism
coupled to ATP breakdown
coupled to ATP sythesis (making of)
anabolic
catabolic
Pi represents=
inprganic phosphate
what factors can affect the rate which an enzyme acts on a substrate?
pH, temperature, and substrate concentration
will the rate of enzyme catalyzed reactions increase or decrease as temp goes up?
increase
what happens to the enzyme if the temp is too high
it denatures or comes apart
what is the ideal pH for maximum enzyme reactions? what happens if the pH is out of this range?
3-4, if out of this range the active site will be altered and the ctivity will decline
what must happ in order to cause an enzymatic reaction with a substrate? what increases the chance of these reactions?
a collision must occur, the more substrate concentration the greater the # of collisions
If this looks like a substrate and can fit into the enzymes active site what is it called?
competitive ihibitors
A coenzyme assists an enzyme by acepting or donating matter. What does NAD+ donate?
Electrons
In an enzymatic reaction involving oxidation of a substrate what would be required?
ATP
A reaction where electrons are gained
reduction
Enzymes are impt in living organisms because they:
bring together reactants
During glycolysis, electrons from the oxidation of gluclose are transferred to:
NAD
what is ATP composed of?
sugar, 3 phosphates and base
ADP can be broken down into:
AMP
what is phosphloration?
the adding of a phosphate molecule
Catabolic reactions are ususally _ reactions because they use water to break chemical bonds and they are _ bec. they use more energy than they consume
hydrolytic

exergonic
a seqence of enzymatically catalyzed chemical reactions in a cell
metabolic pathway
a metabolic pathway is determined by _.
enzymes
Enzymes are encoded by _?
genes
Catalyzes a reaction but remains unchanged
enzyme
the chemical that the enzyme changes
substrate
reactions that use water and in which chemical bonds are broken
hydrolytic/catabolic reaction
reaction where more energy is produced than consumed
exergonic/catabolic reaction
reaction that releases water
dehydration sythesis/aabolic reaction
reaction where more energy is produced than consumed
endergonic/anabolic
Examples of this reation include the forming of proteins from amino acids and polysaccharides from simple sugars
anabolic
_ stores energy derived from catabolic reactions and releases it later to drive anaboli reactions
ATP
consists of an adenine, a ribose and 3 phosphate groups
ATP
An Enzyme is a biological _ because it can speed up a chemical reaction without being permanently altered
Catalyst
may assist enzymes by accepting/donating atoms required by the substrate
Coenzyme
An electron carrying coenzyme involved with assisting an enzyme in a catabolic reaction
NAD+
An electron crrying coenzyme involved with assisting an enzyme in an anaboli reaction
NADP+
Coenzyme involed in the making and breakdown of fats in the Krebs cycle
coenzyme A
What type of reatio occurs in the Krebs cycle?
oxidation, the loss of electrons
4 factors that interfere with enzymatic activity
temp too high/low=denaturation

pH not right 3-4 optimum

saturation rate 2 low

competitive inhibitors fill up active sites
the most common carbohydrate energy source used by cells
gluclose
what is carbohydrate catbolism?
th breakdown of carbohydrates to release energy
in respiration and fermentation gluclose is broken down into what?
pyruvic acid
the ATP generating process which molecules are oxidized and the final electron receptor is usually an inorganic molecule
cellular respiration
the breakdown of 6 carbon glulose into 2 3 carbon sugars and then broken down into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid
Glycolysis
in the krebs cycle the derivatives of pyruvic acid are _ and the coenzymes are _
oxidized (broken down)
reduced (gain electrons)
the action of the eletron transport chain ocurs in the _ of eukaryotes and in the _ of prokaryotes
mitochindria

plasma membrane
consists of an adenine, a ribose and 3 phosphate groups
ATP
An Enzyme is a biological _ because it can speed up a chemical reaction without being permanently altered
Catalyst
may assist enzymes by accepting/donating atoms required by the substrate
Coenzyme
An electron carrying coenzyme involved with assisting an enzyme in a catabolic reaction
NAD+
An electron crrying coenzyme involved with assisting an enzyme in an anaboli reaction
NADP+
Coenzyme involed in the making and breakdown of fats in the Krebs cycle
coenzyme A
What type of reatio occurs in the Krebs cycle?
oxidation, the loss of electrons
4 factors that interfere with enzymatic activity
temp too high/low=denaturation

pH not right 3-4 optimum

saturation rate 2 low

competitive inhibitors fill up active sites
the most common carbohydrate energy source used by cells
gluclose
what is carbohydrate catbolism?
th breakdown of carbohydrates to release energy
in respiration and fermentation gluclose is broken down into what?
pyruvic acid
the ATP generating process which molecules are oxidized and the final electron receptor is usually an inorganic molecule
cellular respiration
the breakdown of 6 carbon glulose into 2 3 carbon sugars and then broken down into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid
Glycolysis
in the krebs cycle the derivatives of pyruvic acid are _ and the coenzymes are _
oxidized (broken down)
reduced (gain electrons)
the action of the eletron transport chain ocurs in the _ of eukaryotes and in the _ of prokaryotes
mitochindria

plasma membrane
in _ respiration the final electron receptor is organic (o2)
AEROBIC
how many Atps generated in aerobic respiration?
38
C_H_O + _O_ +_ADP + _Pi -->

_CO_+_H2O + _ATP
the overal reaction for aerobic respiration in prokaryotes
how many ATPs generated in eukaryotes during aerobic respiration and why?
36 some enery lost as electrons shuttle across mitohondria
the amount of ATP generated in anaerobic respiration in prokaryotes
varies with organism and pathway
In _ respiration the final electron receptor is an inorganic molecule
anaerobic
define the 5 elements involved with fermentation
1. does not requre oxygen

2. no krebw cycle or electron chain involved

3. release from sugars or other Organic molecules

4. small amount of ATP produced 1 to 2

5. uses an organic molecule as the final electron receptor
why does fermentation produce so little ATP?
ATP only produced during glycolysis the rest of the energy is left in the chemical bonds
Streptococcus and Latobacillus are used to breakdown pyruvid acid into _ for food production. the process is called
Lactic acid

Latic acid fermentation
The breakdown of yeast into ethanol as a byproduct
alcohol fermentation
When biological testing is done on bacteria/yeast, what are they looking for?
looking for secific enzymes produced by that bacteria/yeast
when using fermentation tests on bacteria/yeasts what are you looking for?
specific acids/gases produced by the microbe
the converstion of light energy into chemical energy
photosynthesis
photosynthesis is a _ reaction because it synthesizes gluclose from light and co2
anabolic
plants, algae and cynobacteria use _ as a hydrogen donor releasing O2
water
the making of sugars by using carbon atoms from co2
carbon fixation
the color pigment neccessary to conduct photosynthesis
chlorophyll
for their principal carbon source:
autotrophs use _
heterotrophs use_
co2 self feeders
req an organic carbon source
for their energy source:
phototrophs use _
chemotrophs use _
light
all others
the equation of photosynthesis:

6__2 + _ H2O + _ _ -->
C_H_O_ + _ H2O + _ O_
gotta know this and aerobic respiration equation
give the temp req for growth of the following bacteria:
psychrophiles _
mesophiles _
thermophiles _
cold
middle
hot
grow fairly well at fridge temps and cause food spoilge
psychrotrophs
optimum growth 15 and 20 to 30 degrees
psychrophiles
min temp -10 max around 20
psychrophiles
most common type of microbe with opt temp of 25-40 degrees
mesophiles
the optimum temp for pathogenic bacteria
37 degrees
optimum growth temp of 50-60 degrees. min temp is 45 degrees
thermmophiles
most bacteria grow best when the pH is around?
neutral 6.5 to 7
acid tolerant microbes
acidophiles pH 3-4
what type of solution do bacteria like?
isotonic = equal
higher concentration of solutes outside than inside the cell
hypertonic
what happens to a cell during plasmolysis
the cel shrinks because the water inside the cytoplasm is lost
cells that require and love high salt concentrations
halophiles
what is the solute concentration of agar and why?
1.5, anything higher may cause increased osmotic pressure and inhibit bacterial growth
besides water 1 of the most impt requirements for icrobial growth because it is the backbone of al livng matter
Carbon
element needed for protein synthesis in a cell
nitrogen
cells turning nitrogen into energy they can use instead of o2
nitrogen fixation
element needed to ake certain amino acids and vitamins
sulfur
element needed for the production of nucleic acids and the phospholipids of cell membranes
phosphorus
name some trace elements found in cells
iron, zinc
micrbes that require O2
obligate anaerobes

seen at the top of testube
microbes that use o2 but can live without it
faculative anaerobes

e coli

found mostly at top also everywhere
microbes unable to use o2, harmed by it
obligate anaerobes

clostridium

seen at the bottom of testube
unable to use o2 but not harmed by it
Aetolerant anaerobes

Lactobacilli

even growth
require small amounts of o2
Microphiles

seen in the middle