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45 Cards in this Set

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how do you cut a plasmid?
Restriction Endonuclease
who developed Genetic Engineering?
Boyer and Cowan
how do you seal a plasmid after the new strand of DNA has been purified and inserted?
DNA Ligase.
Name one important R Endo
Eco R1
what are palandromic bases?
repeating base sequences..

aka- ATTGCA-ATTGCA
TAACGT-TAACGT
what is another name for DNA ligase?
CHimera
WHat is electrophoresis?
highly purified agar used to separate DNA into bands
What chemical do you use to see DNA bands?
Ethidium Bromide...and you put it in Electrophoresis and under a UV light.
What kind of bonds does ligase form? and between what?
Ligase forms Covalent bonds between sugar and phosphate in the DNA strands
Waht is another 6-base cutter besides Eco-R1?
Bam H1
What is the organism that farmers spray onto their crops?
Frostban....aka, Pseudomonas Syringae...an organism with mutated genes used to protect crops from frostbite at night
WAht is Humulin?
Human insulin, created in teh lab....made by rDNA technology
What is Heat Shock Treatment?
A way to get plasmids into EColi....42 degrees celcius for 90 seconds.
What is a Ti plsmid?
a plasmid posessed by A. Tumefasciens...plant genetics
what are Amp r genes
Ampicillin resistant genes
who discovered DNA fingerprinting?
Jeffreys
waht is PCR?
a gene amplification technique
what is Hind III
a restriction Endonuclease
Who is Mullis?
A man who discovered PCR...which is one of the most used molecular techniques
what is a thermocycler?
a machine that adjusts different temperatures at different times
Waht is taq polymerase?
a heat stable DNA poly used in PCR procedure, that was isolated from Thermus aquaticus...a thermophilic organism
Waht is used to control the growth of insects on plants?
(known as a microbial insecticide...)
Bacillus Thuringiensis
What is Amantadine (Symmetrel) used to treat?
Influenza A
What is the early stage of a Bacteriophage (bacterial virus) called?
A prophage (provirus)

prophage--> bacteriophage
When Ampicillin and Clindamycin (antibiotics) are given in large amounts for treatments of diseases, what happens in your GI tract?
You kill off your WBC's and Clostridium difficile causes an antibiotic-associated intestinal disease called AAPMC
When was Zyvox/Linezolid approved?
2000
What is Zyvox/Linezolid?
a new antibiotic that is used to treat antibiotic-resistant organisms such as SA, and EF
Waht is a recombinant DNA molecule?
has a couple different DNA in it
What is important about an Ideal Anti-microbial that has to do with toxocity?
It should be Selective Toxocity...meaning, it should kill organism, and not the host cell
What is important about an Ideal Anti-microbial that has to do with its ability to reach the organism?
It better be able to reach the organism WHEREVER it is in the body...and by the time it reaches that organism, still have enough of a dose of antimicrobial to kill the organism
What is important about an Ideal Anti-microbial that has to do with normal human immunity functions...
The anti-microbial better not interfere with basic body functions...such as phagocytosis, and anti-bodies (immunoglobulins)
What are cephlosporins?
A large group of Anti-microbials...that are cephlosporic...
What are the first generation of Cephlosporin called?
Cephalothin
What are SECOND generation of Cephlosporin called?
Cephoxitin
What is the THIRD gen of Cephlosporin called?
Cephoperazone
Waht is an extended range Penicillin called?
Ampicillin, and Amoxicillin
What are BLR penicillin's?
Beta-lactomase-Resistant penicillins...
What are examples of BLR's?
Penicillinase, Methacil, Dicloxicillin, and Nafocillin
What is a combination penicillin?
penicillin and another thing
What are two examples of a combination penicillin?
Augment, and Trimentin
Which Penicillin is extremely harsh...has bad side effects?
Amphoteracin B
What are beta-lactomases?
organisms that can produce a product that disables Beta-Lactame ring
Which organisms are beta-lactomases? (organisms that break down Beta-lactame ring)
SA, NG, and Homopholous I
What is an RTF?
(A type of plasmid) Resistance-Transfer-Factor...= resistance genes.

These are 6 different types of antibodies/antibiotics...Gram (-) rods hook up with them, and make them uber-resistant
What is the Kirby-Bauer technique?
Using a huge plate...suspension of organism....looking for "zones."