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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Lower RT
free of microbes due to constant removal of foreign particles by cilia
Upper RT
inhibited by streptococci, staphylococci, neisseriar, diphtheroids and yeasts
Most Upper RT infections are
Strep throat
Streptococcus pyogenes, pyogenic (pus), fever, throat inflammation, glandular swelling
strep throat can lead to
S. pyogenes. scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, and acute glomerulonephritis
S. pyogenes treatment
Scarlet fever
lysogenic strainof S. pyogenes. erythrogenic toxin - red rash and strawberry tongue
Rheumatic fever
characterized by lesions on heart, joints, skin. 2-3 weeks after strep throat
Acute glomerulonephritis
kids after strep throat. edema, hypotension and blood in urine
Necrotizing faciitis
S. pyogenes. rapid destruction of fibrous tissue (encloses and separates muscle)
Another name of streptococcus pneumoniae
Bacterial pneumonia
S. pneumoniae. 2ndary infection to viral upper RT tract. Complications - Meningitis, pleurisy (pleura inflammation), abscess formation, septicema
Legionnaire's Disease
Legionella pneumophila. aerobic gram - rod. high fever, headaches, 2-10 day incubation. bronchopneumonia. pontiac fever.
Bordella pertussis
gram -, coccobacillus. droplets - highly contagious. severe coughing - gasps for air (whoops). dangerous in children. exotoxin, extracytoplasmic adenylate cyclase - cAMP contribute to pathogenesis
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
diptheria. gram + rod. dipheria exotoxin cleaves into A and B. grayish membrane, necrosis and swelling in throat.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis. slow growth. droplet.
H. influenzae type b. Hib vaccine. infection of membrane around brain and spinal cord
Most common cause of illness
respiratory tract
second most common illness
digestive tract
When is the oral cavity colonized?
during and after birth
Dental plaque
60-70% bac. embedded in polysaccharide-glycoprotein matrix.
Dental caries
destruction of tooth enamel by acid forming bacteria (Streptococcus mutans). Makes dextrans from sucrose to adhere
trench mouth. most common peridonatal disease. necrosis of gums
Helicobacter pylori
peptic ulcers. pH becomes less acidic in lower small intestine. Bac diversity and number increase.
Food infection
infectious agent establishes active infection in small intestine. infecction has to multiply
Food intoxication
symptoms are result of food or water contaminated by Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringes, Staph aureus
uncommon in US (50/yr). C. botulism. potent neurotoxin - 8 types. symptoms - weakness, dizziness, dry mouth, blurred vision. 18-36 hours post injection
Infant botulism
get from eating dirt. Symptoms - weakness, weak neck, paralysis, respiratory problems, impaired sucking ability
Botulism toxin amount to die
1 ug. need to get antitoxin immediately!!
S. aureus food intoxication
6 toxins. nauseam cramps, vomitting, diarrhea. 1-6 hours. resolve in 1-2 days
fecal matter contaminated water. Vibrio cholerae. rice water stools, vomitting, loss of appetite. Toxin turns ATP to cAMP
Typhoid fever
Salmonella typhi. starts in stomach spread to blood. Rose collored spots on abdomen.
Salmonella enteriditis. GI disease: fever cramps, nausea, diarrhea, cramps. Raw eggs
bacillary dysentary. Shigella sonnei (75%) Shigella flexneri (25%). fever cramps, blood and mucous in feces
abortion in cattle
Viral hepatitis
6 types of virus. A, B, C, D, E, and G. RNA enterovirus, infects intestine and spreads by blood to liver, kidney, and spleen. loss of apetite, nausea, diarrhea, fever, discomfort, and jaundice
Propionibacterium acnes
principal bac on skin. thought to cause acne
Corynebacterium xerosis
gram -, causes body odor
s. aureus, S. pyogenes. imples to large lesions. furunculosis, erysipelas, impetigo, and scalded skin syndrome
infection of hair folicle, boil forms. could form carbuncle
st. elmo's fire. bright red patches on skin
small pustule become crusted and highly infectious
Scalded skin syndrome
S. aureus. infant to 4. exofoliatin cause of red skin rash
hansen's disease. mycobacterium leprae. lasts for 20-40 years. acid fast rod
Indeterminant leprosy
lesions. 75% of cases it doesn't go further
lepromatous phase
disfiguring lesions
treatment of leprosy
rifampin. more prevalent in tropics. first case in Florida
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
burn victims. antimicrobial resistance
given by fleas, lice, ticks, and mites, Typhus, rocky mountain spotted fever
How many deer ticks are infected in US?
Most common cause of UTI
E. coli
Stages of Syphilis
primary - chancre 2-3 weeks after exposure. Secondary - skin rash, fever, lesions in body and organs. Tertiary several years after exposureskin lesions and infection of nervous system.
Nongonococcal urethritis
Chylamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum. inflamation of the urethra
Toxic shock syndrome
S. aureus
discovered in 81. retrovirus. cannot be treated
common source epidemic vs. propogated epidemic
group of ppl exposed at same time (botulism from same restaurant) vs. transmitted from one host to another via direct contact or vector (kid giving measles to whole class)
disease that is constantly present, measles or gonnorrhea
deaths per 1000
cases of disease in pop
prevalence rate
existing cases
incidence rate
number of new cases
morbidity and mortality rates differ with
age, sex, and race
Nosocomial infections
hospital infections. 10% of patients
CDC bioterrorism
Category A - High priority, B - moderate, C - emerging pathogens