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124 Cards in this Set

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Can bacteria grow in dead cells?
yes, this can grow in dead cells.
Can Rickettsia (Chlamydia)grow in dead cells?
No. This organism must only grow in living cells.
What kind of environment must viruses live in?
Living cells is what this must grow in.
What is the size of Bacteria?
between .5 - 3.0 micro-meters.
What is the size of a Rickettsia (Chlamydia)?
approximately 400 Nanometers.
What is the size of a virus?
approximately 150 Nanometers..(That would be .15 Micrometers...)
What kind of microscope do you use to view Bacteria?
You use a Light microscope to view this..
What kind of microscope do you use to view Rickettsia (Chlamydia)?
You use a Light Microscope to view this..
What kind of microscope do you use to view a virus?
Electron microscope (scanning mostly)
Is Bacteria filterable?
No. this is not filterable.
Is Rickettsia (Chlamydia) filterable?
No. this is not filterable,...except for Coxiella.
Are viruses filterable?
yes. Viruses are definately filterable. If you think you have a virus...take a swab test...organisms will not filter, and viruses will.
How does bacteria multiply?
This multiplies through binary fission
How does Rickettsia (Chlamydia) multiply?
This multiplies through binary fission.
HOw do viruses multiply?
These things are very complex when it comes to dividing/multiplication. They have to do it in a LIVE cell.
What kind(s) of Nucleid Acids do Bacteria have?
this contains both DNA & RNA
What kinds of Nucleic Acids does Rickettsia (Chlamydia) have?
DNA & RNA
What kinds of Nucleic acids do Viruses have?
DNA or RNA...NOT BOTH.
Is Bacteria sensitive to antibiotics?
YEs.
IS Rickettsia (Chlamydia) sensitive to antibiotics?
Yes.
Are viruses succeptible/sensitive to Antibiotics, or Resistant?
Resistant.
Does Bacteria have a cell wall? (Muramic Acid...aka NAM, and peptidoglycan)
YEs.
Does Rickettsia (Chlamydia) have a cell wall? (Muramic Acid...aka NAM, and peptidoglycan)
Yes.
Do Viruses have cell walls? (Muramic Acid...aka NAM, and peptidoglycan)
NO...so, you can't use penicillin on it because penicillin inhibits barriers being built between cell walls...but viruses don't have cell walls...so, penni wont do anything.
Does BActeria have OIP's?
No...But..some bacteria are intracellular..they are just not in Obligate form...Nisseria Gonnorhea, and ___________________
Does Rickettsia (Chlamydia) have OIP's?
Yes. this has OIP's.
Do viruses have OIP's?
Yes. these have OIP's.
Is bacteria able to synthesize ATP?
yes...in the cell wall
Is Rickettsia (Chlamydia) able to synthesize ATP?
Rikketsia = yes, and Clamydia = no.
Are viruses able to synthesiz4e ATP?
No. these are not able to synthesize ATP.
Are there Ribosomes in Bacteria?
YES.
Are there ribosomes in Rickettsia (Chlamydia)?
yes.
Are there ribosomes in Viruses?
no. there are no ribosomes in this...
Can Bacteria perform Macromolecular synthesis?
Yes. this can perform Macromolecular synthesis.
Can Rickettsia (Chlamydia) perform Macromolecular Synthesis?
YEs. This can perform Macromolecular synthesis.
Can Viruses perform Macromolecular synthesis?
ONLY with the use of a host cell.
What does macromolecular mean?
A very large molecule, such as a polymer or protein, consisting of many smaller structural units linked together...also known as a Supermolecule.
What year did Woese-fox construct the 3-kingdom concept?
1975 is when this system was created.
What are the three levels of the 3-kingdom concept?
1.Archeobacteria
2.Eubacteria
3.Eukaryotes
what are the characteristics of Archeobacteria?
Extreme halophiles, Methanogens, thermacedophiles (that is what makes them so unique...they don't look like anyone else.)
What are the characteristics of Eubacteria?
Cyanobacteria, G+ and G- bacteria, spirochetes, photosynthetic bacteria
What are the characteristics of Eukaryotes?
Algae, Protazoa, fungi, plants, animals
What did Carl Linnaeus do?
He created the first comprehensive classification system of all living things...binomal classification system: genus/species
What century did Linnaeus create the binomial classification system?
1700's.
What kind of Nitrogen is essential for my nutrition?
Organic Nitrogen
Where do I find Organic Nitrogen?
Peptides, protein, Amino Acids, RNA + DNA, and salt
Is Carbon necissary for nutrition?
yes
Where can I find Carbon?
in DNA, RNA
Is phosphorous necissary for nutrition?
yes. it is found in ATP, and the cell membrane
Where do I find sulfur?
Di-sulfide bonds,(that hold peptides together) A.A.,
What do you need water for?
metabolism, and reactions
What are some T.E. (trace elements)
Iron, Magnesium,(found in Hemoglobin) cytochrome chain, (important in energy/ATP formation)DNA POlymerase
What is a liquid media called?
a broth
What does ecoli need to make everything that it needs?
Glucose salts
What does my body use as a buffer?
?????LOOK UP
What does a buffer do?
Prevents a change in pH.
What is peptone? What does it do?
it's a source of protein...and a peptic digest of meat. Pepcid AC...
what is Tryptone...what does it do?
tryptic digest of protein...(proteolytic enzyme)
What does gelatin do?
this is a source of protein
what is beef extract made of?
Take beef broth and extract peptides and A.A...Beef bullion cubes/beef broth.
Yeast extract...how do you get it, and what is it made out of?
boil yeast, and extract the "goodies"...nucleotides, A.A., sugar, proteins, B vitamins, and everything good.
what is Glucose in a media for?
It has Carbon and ENERGY in it.
Why would you add agar to a medium?...what are some characteristics about agars that make it unique, important?
to make sure it soidifies...only takes complex polysaccharide...very complex, and most organisms can't break it down. METABOLICALLY INERT...Some can though..they are called "agar digesters..." Marine organisms. Agar comes from a red algae in the ocean called Gelidium...
What temperature does Agar melt at? What temp does it solidify at?
it melts at 100 degrees centigrade, and it solidifies at 40 degrees centigrade. Once it solidifies...it STAYs soidified, until you reach 100 degrees centigrade, or go down to 0 degrees centigrade. You need 1.5% agar to make it soid.
What is the most common pH indicator?..what is it used for?
Phenol RED...
It is used for determinining if the organism produces acid or not...if the organism DOES, the indicator turns YELLOW. If a BASIC organism, thenit turns HOT PINK.
What do basic dyes do?
They inhibit G + organisms. so, when you use them, you can view G - organisms very easily.
What are some common Basic dyes?
Eosin, and Methaline Blue.
What kind of animals do you get blood from for agars?
Sheep.
Why can't you use human blood?
because human blood has anitbodies (immunoglobulins) that inhibit organisms that you are trying to grow.
How much concentraion of Sheep blood do you use in a medium?
about 5% concentration. So, if there is 100 Ml concentration, use 5 Ml of sheep blood.
What kinds of trace elements do you put into a medium?
usually don't have to worry about adding trace elements if you use tap water, instead of Distilled water.
What kinds of organisms are you trying to grow if you use animal blood in a medium?...What is so special about Animal Blood?
These kinds of organisms are called Fastidious. Animal blood is VERY RICH in nutrients, so it provides a good situation for "picky"/"needy" oranisms to grow...aka, fastidious. (requiring many nutrients)
What are some examples of General Purpose agars?
Nutrient agars, MH agars, ("mueller Hinton")
What does differential media mean?
it means that in that agar, you can grow seperate organisms, and it helps differentiate between different organisms. Different organisms do different things to medias...one example is TSI...triple sugar and IRon agar.
Bacteria have trouble growing on what media? Why?
they have trouble growing on a SElective media...because there is a low pH
What kinds of organisms grow very well on a selective media?
Yeasts and Molds.
What is M-ENT used to grow?
Enterococci...Enterococcus Decalis
Which has more nutrients...Blood or Chocolate agar?
Chocolate agar...grows Nisserias.
is 0 very acidic, or very alkilinic/basic?
very very acidic.

(basic = 8-14)
do alkilinic compounds have a lot of H, or a little.
this kind of compound has a relatively low concentration of Hydrogen ions.
what is a stabilizer of teh cell wall?
Calcium
What is a stabilizer of membranes and Ribosomes?
Magnesium
What is important in the cytochrome of cellular respiration?
Iron
what makes E. Coli so versatile?
It synthesizes its own nutrients from scratch.
what is an autotroph?
An organism capable of synthesizing its own food from inorganic substances, using light or chemical energy. Green plants, algae, and certain bacteria are autotrophs.
what is a heterotroph?
An organism that cannot synthesize its own food and is dependent on complex organic substances for nutrition.
what is a photoautotroph?
an autotroph, that uses light as its energy source.
what is a chemoautotroph?
An organism, such as a bacterium or protozoan, that obtains its nourishment through the oxidation of inorganic chemical compounds as opposed to photosynthesis
what is the difference between obligate and facultative?
obligate-organism can only survive in that niche or habitat, and facultative means that an organism can survive in a wide array of environments.
What Genus is Treponema?
The spirochetes
What Genus is Borrelia?
spirochetes
What Genus is Spirillum volutaris?
Aerobic Gram (-) Bacteria
What Genus is Campylobacter?
Aerobic Gram (-) Bacteria
What Genus is Pseudomonas?
Gram (-) curved Bacteria
What Genus is Azotobacter?
(non-symbiotic) Gram (-) aerobic rods
What Genus is Rhizobium?
Gram (-) aerobic rods
What Genus is Halobacterium?
Gram (-) aerobic rods
What Genus is Acetobacter?
Gram (-) aerobic rods
What Genus is Legionella?
Gram (-) aerobic rods
What Genus is Nisseria?
Gram (-) Aerobic rods
What Genus is Escherichia?
Facultative Anaerobic gram (-)
What Genus is Shigella
Facultative Anaerobic gram (-)
What Genus is Salmonella
Facultative Anaerobic gram (-)
What Genus is Klebsiella
Facultative Anaerobic gram (-)
What Genus is Enterobacter?
Facultative Anaerobic gram (-)
What Genus is Erwinia?
Facultative Anaerobic gram (-)
What Genus is Serratia?
Facultative Anaerobic gram (-)
What Genus is Proteus?
Facultative Anaerobic gram (-)
What Genus is Yersinia?
Facultative Anaerobic gram (-)
What Genus is Vibrio??
Facultatively anaerobic gram (-)
What Genus is Chromobacterium?
Facultatively anaerobic gram (-)
What Genus is Gardnerella?
Facultatively anaerobic gram (-)
What Genus is Micrococcus?
Gram (+) Cocci
What Genus is Staphylococcus
Gram + cocci
What genus is Bacillus
Endospore forming Gram + Rods and cocci
What genus is Clostridium
Endospore forming Gram + Rods and cocci
What genus is Lactobacillus
Regular, NON-SPORING, Gram + rods
what color is Rhodospirillum?
Purple non-sulfur bacteria
What color is Chromobacterium?
Green sulfur bacteria
What are three types of Eubacteria?
Cyanobacteria, Rickettsia, and Mycoplasma
what is cyanobacteria?
It is an eukaryotic type of photosynthesis between pro and eu.
What are the two types of true bacteria?
Rickettsia (/Chlamydia) and Mycoplasma (no cellwall)
What are three types of Archeobacteria?
Halobacteria, (salt-lovers) Methanogenic bacteria(produce methane), and the acidophilum (thermoplasma, and sulfolobus)
What is an example of a Differential media?
TSI (triple sugar - iron media)