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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
general characteristics of staph and related organisms
gram positive
aerobic or facultatively anaerobic
found in soil, skin, water
staph aureus big differentiators
catalase positive
coagulase positive
protein A
s. aureus virulence factors
Capsule—inhibits phagocytosis
Protein A—inhibits phagocytosis, binds antibody
TSST-1—superantigen
Exfoliative toxins—unknown mechanism (SSSS)
Enterotoxins
Cytotoxins
Enzymatic Factors
s. aureus enzymatic factors
Catalase—breaks down hydrogen peroxide
Coagulase—leads to clotting
Fibrinolysin—dissolves clots
Hyaluronidase—spreading factor; breaks down connective tissue
Lipases—break down lipids
Nucleases—break down nucleic acids
Penicillinase—cleaves β-lactam rings
s. epidermidis can cause
Bacteremia
Endocarditis
Urinary tract infections (also common with S. saprophyticus)
Wound infections
Medical device related infections (catheters, shunts and implanted devices)
s. epidermidis is found where?
abundant microflora of skin
s. aureus causes:
1. endocarditis
2. scalded skin syndrome
3. pneumonia
4. toxic shock syndrome
5. cutaneous skin infections: impetigo
6. septic arthritis
Lancefeld groupings of strep
A: S. pyogenes
B: S. agalactiae
D: Enterococci
non groupable: S. pneumoniea and viridans
All strep test how for the catalase test
negative
all staph are catalase
all strep are catalase
1. positive
2. negative
staph saprophyticus cause
UTI
strep pyogens tests
catalse negative
beta hemolytic
pyr positive
bacitracin sensitive
pyr-positive
s. pyogenes virulence factors
capsule
lipoteichoic acid
antiphagocytic
adherence
pyogenes virulence
m protein
m like protein
adhhesin/antiphagocytic
binds Ig
pyogenes virulence factors

f protien
pyrogenic exotoxins
streptolysin S
Streptolysin O
adherence
immune system effects
non immunogenic cytolysin
immunogenic cytolysin
pyogenes virulence factors

streptokinase
DNase
C5a peptidase
lyses clots; facilitates spread
degrades dna
degrades C5a, a complement protien, thus inhibiting phagocytosis
Antiseptics

Disinfectants—

Sterilants

Antibacterial Chemotherapeutic Agents—
1. can be used on living tissue

2. used on inanimate objects

3. strong disinfectants that can be used to sterilize surfaces

4.used to inhibit growth inside the body
inhibitors of cell wall synthesis
1. beta lactams
2. penicillins
3. cephalosporins
4. vancomycin
antibiotic spectrum
range of species for which an antibiotic is effective
bacteriocidal

bacteriostatic
1. kills bacteria

2. inhibits growth
A positive PYR test produces what color
Red
What tests positive for PYR
S. pyoggenes
Enterococci
M protein
1. two alpha helical proteins
2. C terminous anchored in PM and highly conserved
3. N terminous highly variable and waves around
4. binds cell surfaces,
5. prevents phagocytosis,
6. degrades complement
Class I M proteins
exposed C repeats
Mediate Rheumatic fever
Hippurate test is positive and produces what color

what organism is positive?
Purple

S. agalactiae
IgA protease
enhances colonization
lactoferrin/transferrin
keep Fe concentrations low
lactoperoxidase
bacteriostatic
beta lysin
released by platelets during coagulation: bacteriocidal
properdin
tissue inflamation; complement, phagocytosis
defensins
penetrate PM and form pores allowing eflux
3 ways to inhibit phagocytosis
1. inhibition of fusion of phagolysosome
2. resistant to lysosomal enzymes
3. adapt to cytoplasmic replication
5 endotoxic effects
1. inflamation
2. coagulate blood
3. fibrinolysin
4. internal hemmorhaging
5. hypotension