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75 Cards in this Set

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What is homeostasis
the body way of maintaining a normal balance
negative feedback
and atagongistic system of checks and balances majority of bodys funtion is negiative feed back
postitive feedback
domino effect. one action cause anther untill stimius is stoped ie labor.
hormone controlled and negitive feed back
insuline level drops, signls live to produce more insulin and insuline incresses sensor stopes production.
What is homeostasis
the body way of maintaining a normal balance - dynamic constancy of the internal enviroment
negative feedback
and atagongistic system of checks and balances majority of bodys funtion is negiative feed back
postitive feedback
domino effect. one action cause anther untill stimius is stoped i.e. labor - amplify changes and be part of the action of an overall negitive feedback system
hormone controlled and negitive feed back
insuline level drops, signls live to produce more insulin and insuline incresses sensor stopes production.
what are the primary tissues
muscle, never, epithelia, connective
what is the difference between Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy is the study of structure while physiology how cells,tissues and organs function
what is scientific method
1 confidence = in natural world it is true
2 description = what you see is what is
3 humility = admit wrong
how to get to a theroy
hypothesis --> observation --> effect --> reaction --> theory --> widely held belief
pharmaceutical trials
4 stages 90% do not make it to stage 1 to toxic to teh body.
describe the stages
1st = test on healthy individuals
2nd = test on target population
3rd = across the country max
4th = try drug for other potential uses
Claude Bernard
father of modern chemistry
set point
is the normal value of the body funciton
effector
is when a sendsor is activates
what is the major function of the musce tissue?
movement
what is the major function of the nervus tissue
commincation
what is the major function of the epithial tisue
covering and protection
what is contive tissue
all other tissue, binds, supports and is the battle grond for stopping infection
what are the different type of muscle tissue
cardiac = heart
smooth = lines esophagus blood vessel
skeletal = voluntary
What are the two types of glands in the epithelial tissue
exocrine = secrete chemicals througth a duct that leads to the outside of membrane
and
endocrine = secrete chemicals called hormoes into blood
Integumentary
protection, thermoregualtion
nervous
regulation of other body systems
endocrine
secretion of regulatory molecules called hormos
skeletal
movement and support
muscular
movement of of the skeleton
circulatory
movement of blood and lymph
immune
defense fo the body against invading pathogens
respiratory
gas exchange
urinary
regulation of blood volume and composition
digestive
breakdown of food into molecules that enter the body
reproductive
continuation of the human species
what is a pacinian corpuscle
a deep pressure sensory neuron
what are the three layers of the skin
epidermis, dermis, hypodermis
what are the systems that regulatae homeostasis in the body
the nervous and endocrine systems provide extrinsic regulation
Glands are derived from
epitherlial tissue
cells are joied closely together in
epitherlial tissue
cells are separated by large extracellular spaces in
connective tissues
blood vessels and nerves are usually located within
connective tissues
most organs are composed of
epithelial tissues
muscle tissues
connective tissues
sweat is secreted by exxocrine glands
it is secreted into a duct
describe homeostasis
negative feedback mechanisms act to correct deviations from a normal range within the internal environment
in a negative feedback loop the effector organ produces changes that are
opposite in directon to the change produced by teh initial stimulus,
A hormone called parathyroid hormone acts to help raise the blood calcium concentration. According to the prinicples of negative feedback and effective stimulus for parathyroid hormone secreation would be
a raise in blood Ca+
which of these consists of dense parallel arrangements of collagen fibers
tendons
the act of breathing raises the blood oxygen level, loweres the blood CO2 concentrations and raises the blood pH according to the principles of negative feedback sensors that regulate breathing should respond to
a rise in blood carbon dioxide concentratoin
which of these statements about atoms in ture
they are electrrically neutral
the bond between O2 and hydrogen in a H2O molecule is
a polar covalent bond
which of these is a nonpolar covalent bond
bond between two Carbon
Soluction A has a PH of 2 and solution B has a pH of 10 what can be said
solutions A has a higher H concentration than soulution B
Solution B is basic
Solution A is acidic
Glucose is
a monosaccharide
Digestion reactions occur by means of
hydrolysis
Carbohydrates are stored int eh liver muscles in the form of
glycogen
lecithin is
a phospholipid
which of these lipids have regulatory roles in the body
steroids prostaglandins
The tertiary structure of a protein is directly determined by
the primary structure of the protein
the type of bond formed between two molecules of water is
a hydrogen bond
the carbon-to-nitrogen bond that joins amino acids together is called
a petptide bond
the RNA nucleotide base that pairs with adenine in DNA is
uracil
if four bases in one DNA strands are A, G C, T the complementary bases in the RNA strands made from this region are
UCGA
according to the fluid-mosaic model of the plasma membrane
proteins are free to move within a double layer of phospholids
after the DNA molecule ahs replicated itself, the duplicate strands are called
chromatids
Nerve and skeletal muscle cells in teh adult, which do not divide remain in the
G1 phase
The phase of mitiosis in which the chromosomes line up at teh equator of the cell is called
metaphase
The phase of mitosis in which the chromatids separate is called
anaphase
Chemical modifications of histone proteins are belived to directly influence
genetic translation
which of these statements about RNA is true
it is made in the nucleus
the organell that combines proteins with carbohydrates and packages them within vesicles for secretion is the
Golgi complex
the organell that contains digestive enzymes is
the lysosomes
which of these description of rRna is true
It is produced in the nucleolus
thich of these statement about tRNA is true
it loops back on itself
it is made in teh nucleus
it contains the anticodon
there are over twenty different types
the step in protein synthesis during whcih tRNA, rRna, and mRNA are all active is know as
translation
the anticodons are located in
tRNA