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30 Cards in this Set

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acidophile
an organism that grows best at acidic pH values
autotroph
an organsim able to utilize CO2 as a sole source of carbon
chemolithotroph
an organism obtaining its energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds
chemoorganotroph
an organism obtaining its energy from the oxidation of organic compounds
complementary
nucleic acid sequences that can base-pair with each other. A-T G-C
conjugation
Transfer of genes from one porkaryotic cell to another by a mechanism involving cell-to cell contact
endergonic reaction
A chemical reaction requiring an input of energy to proceed
evolutionary distance
In phylogenetic trees, the sum of the physical distance on a tree separating organisms; this distance is inversely proportional to evolutionary relatedness
exergonic reaction
A chemical reaction that proceeds with the liberation of energy
exons
The coding sequences in a split gene. Contrast with Introns, the intervening noncoding regions
extreme halophile
An organism whose growth is dependent on large amounts (generally greater than 10 percent) of NACL
extremophile
An organism that grows optimally under one or more chemical or physical extremes, such as high or low temperature or pH
fluorescent
Having the ability to emit light of a certain wavelength when activated by light of another wavelength
genotype
The precise genetic constitution of an organism.
halophile
An organism requiring salt (NaCl) for growth
heteroduplex
A double tranded DNA in which on strand is from one source and the toher strand is from another, usually related, source
heterotroph
chemoorganotroph
hybridization
The natural formation or artifical construction of a duplex nucleic acid molecule by copmlementary base pariing between two nucleic acid strands derived from different sources
hyperthermophile
a prokaryote having a growth termperature optimum of 80 degree Celsius or higher
introns
The interveningn noncoding sequences in a split gene. Contrasted with exons, the coding sequences.
macromolecule
a large molecule (polymer) formed by the connection of a numer of small molecules(monomers)
mesophile
organism living in the temperature range near that of warm-blooded animals, and usually showing a growth temperature optimum between 25 and 40 degrees Celsius
metazoa
multicellular organisms
molecule
two or more atoms chemically bonded to one another
monomer, polymer
a building block of a polymer
a large molecule formed by polymerization of monomeric units
neutrophile
an organism that grows best around pH 7
nucleic acid probe
a strand of nucleic acid that can be labeled and used to hybridize to a copmlementary moleucle from a mixture of other nucleic acids. In clinical microbiology or microbial ecology, short oligonucleotides of unique sequences used as hybridization probe for identifying pahtogens or other organisms of interest
nucleotide
a monomeric unit of nucleic acid , consisiting of a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogenous base
operon
a cluster or genes whose experession is controlled by a single operator. typical of prokaryotic cells
peptide bond
a type of covalent bond joining amino acids in a polypeptide