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122 Cards in this Set

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Most Common Cause of
• Infected eyelash follicle (stye)
Staphylococcus aureus
• Conjunctivitis in children, especially associated with swimming, sharing towels
adenovirus
• Eyelid swelling, bilateral with muscle pain and eosinophilia
Trichinella spiralis
• Unilateral swelling around one eye
Trypanosoma cruzi
• Eye ulcers from extended contact wear
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
• Acute otitis media
Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus, or Moraxella catarrhalis
• Exudative, erythematous pharyngitis and fever >101°F, cervical lymphadenitis
Streptococcus pyogenes
• Pharyngitis with fever < 101°F; negative for bacteria
adenovirus
• Pharyngitis and extreme fatigue in teen or young adult; abnormal WBCs
EBV
• Common cold
rhinovirus (summer/fall) and coronavirus (winter/spring)
• Unvaccinated child with pseudomembrane in throat and heart irregularity
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
• Fever, chills, URT symptoms, severe arthralgias and myalgias between Nov. and March in U.S. and Canada
influenza virus
• Repetitive cough with inspiratory whoop, often vomiting (whooping cough)
Bordetella pertussis
• Croup
parainfluenza viruses 1 and 2
• Pneumonia and/or bronchiolitis in young child (3 mo. to 5 y.o.)
RSV
• Mild pneumonia in 5-18 y.o.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae; or Chlamydia pneumoniae
• Lobar pneumonia in all age groups
Streptococcus pneumoniae
• Aspiration pneumonia
anaerobes including Bacteroides fragilis
• Pneumonia with dry cough in AIDS patient
Pneumocystis carinii
• Pneumonia with purulent sputum in AIDS patient
Streptococcus pneumoniae
• Pneumonia in teen with CF
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
• Pneumonia in older male, heavy drinker
likely Legionella pneumophila if environmental source seems likely; might also be Klebsiella pneumoniae (currant jelly sputum)
• Pneumonia associated with bird excretions
Chlamydia psittaci
• Pneumonia after contact with dust containing bird or bat feces, Ohio/Mississippi River Valleys
Histoplasma capsulatum
• Pneumonia associated with dust in desert areas of CA/Southwest U.S.
Coccidioides immitis
• Viral meningitis
enteroviruses, some arboviruses, mumps, polio
• Meningitis in neonates, esp. after prolonged rupture of membranes
1stStreptococcus agalactiae/ 2nd E. coli/3rd Listeria monocytogenes
• Meningitis in babies 6 mo. to 2 y.o., unvaccinated
Haemophilus influenzae
• Meningitis in young adult, unresponsive and with cutaneous rash
Neisseria meningiditis
• Purulent meningitis in all age groups except neonates
Streptococcus pneumoniae
• Meningitis in AIDS patient
Cryptococcus neoformans
• Meningitis in transplant patients
Listeria monocytogenes
• Meningitis in severe neutropenia
Aspergillus, a mold with acute branched hyphae
• Encephalitis in young adults, fatal if not treated promptly
HSV-1
• Mosquito-borne encephalitis
Eastern or Western Equine Encephalitis viruses, St. Louis, CA and La Crosse viruses
Viruses latent in nerves:
• Sensory ganglia with unilateral reactivation in 1-3 dermatomes
VZV
• Trigeminal nerve ganglia
HSV-1
• S-2, S-3
HSV-2
Neurotoxins producers:
• Rigid paralysis
Clostridium tetani
• Flaccid paralysis
Clostridium botulinum
• Dysentery and severe headache
Shiga toxin of S. dysenteraie type I
Slow viral diseases affecting brain:
• Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML)
JC virus
• Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)
defective measles virus
• Prion diseases
Creutzfeld-Jakob disease and kuru
Food-poisoning; Vomiting and nausea with no fever 1-6 hours after ingestion of food:
• Cream pastries, ham, potato salad
enterotoxin of Staphylococcus aureus
• Fried rice
heat stable exotoxin of Bacillus cereus
Noninflammatory diarrhea with longer incubation period
• Diarrhea and abdominal cramps after eating meat and vegetables, esp. dried foods; 8-16 hr
Heat-labile toxin of Bacillus cereus
• Traveler’s diarrhea
ETEC with heat-labile and/or heat-stable toxins
• Copious clear diarrhea with mucous flecks after visiting developing country; 1-4 day incub. per
Vibrio cholerae (cholera toxin)
• Infantile diarrhea (0 - 2 y.o.); 1-3 day incub. per.
rotavirus
• Steatorrheic, foul-smelling diarrhea/ abdominal cramps after camping trip and drinking from stream/ outbreak in daycare center; 1-3 week incub. period
Giardia lamblia
• Voluminous watery diarrhea with cramps, flatulence, and weight loss, chronic in AIDS patients
Cryptosporidium parvum
• Abdominal cramps and bloody diarrhea without pus; may also be assoc HUS (anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure
E. coli O157:H7
• Watery diarrhea of infants in developing countries, lasts 2-3 weeks; can become chronic
EPEC
Inflammatory diarrhea and dysentery:
• Most common inflammatory diarrhea in U.S., associated with poultry; oxidase + gram - curved rods
Campylobacter jejuni
• Diarrhea associated with poultry; oxidase – gram -, straight rods
Salmonella species
• Watery diarrhea, febrile, abdominal cramps; changes in 1-2 days to mucoid stools with or without blood; BMs accompanied by straining and tenesmus; occurs mostly < 10 y.o.
Shigella
• Abdominal pain, fever, weight loss generally associated with international travel; mucosal invasion produces flask-shaped ulcers and mucus
Entamoeba histolytica
• Antibiotic-associated (clindamycin or ampicillin) diarrhea/ pseudomembranous colitis
Clostridium difficile
• Chronic hepatitis leading to cirrhosis
Hepatitis B, B/D, or C; Shistosoma mansoni
• Bile duct blockage after surgery, fever, or antibiotics
Ascaris lumbricoides
• Acute infectious endocarditis
Staphylococcus aureus
• Subacute infective endocarditis in persons with pre-existing heart damage, poor oral hygiene
viridans streptococci
• Subacute endocarditis in elderly or those with pre-existing heart condition -
Enterococcus faecalis
• Endocarditis in IV drug abusers; likely to involve both left and right heart
Staphylococcus aureus
• Enlarged, flabby heart leading to heart failure; associated Central or south America–
Trypanosoma cruzi
• Pericarditis or myocarditis
Coxsackie or other enteroviruses; myocarditis also in later stages of Lyme disease
• Septicemia and shock, gram + bacteria
Staphylococcus aureus TSST-1, Strepto-coccus pyogenes SPE-A, or peptidoglycan-teichoic acid fragments of gram +
• Capillary and small vessel endothelial damage/ vector bite
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF)
• Exposure to animals
Brucella species
• Anemia seen with infections
• Paroxysmal febrile disease
Plasmodium species
• Pernicious megaloblastic anemia associated with eating fish (from competition for B12)
Diphyllobothrium latum
• Microcytic hypochromic anemia from blood loss
hookworms
• Arthritis
o Polyarticular in menstruating female
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
o Intermittent after bull’s eye rash/ tick bite
Borrelia burgdorferia
• Osteomyelitis
o Osteomyelitis usually
Staphylococcus aureus except neonates - could be S. agalactiae or enterobacteriaceae
o In sickle cell patient
Salmonella species
o In IV drug abusers
S. aureus, P. aeruginosa
• Cystitis in most people
Escherichia coli
o Newly sexual active females
Staphylococcus saprophyticus
• Cystitis/bloody urine/rural Africa
Schistosoma haematobium
• Vesicles on genitalia
HSV-2
• Genital warts
Human papilloma virus, most common 6 and 11, associated with development of cancer - 16 and 18
• Male urethritis
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
• Women - asymptomatic, vaginitis, cervicitis, or PID
Chlamydia trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae
• Hard chancre, painless
Treponema pallidum
• Soft chancre, painful
Haemophilus ducreyi
• Malodorous vaginitis
Trichomonas vaginalis
• Pruritic painful vulvovaginitis
Candida albicans
• Smelly vaginal discharge
Gardnerella vaginitis
• Boils and carbuncles
S. aureus
• “lumpy” jaw
Actinomyces israelii