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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which are three of the genus' of pathogenic "spirochetes"? Describe general characteristics
Borrelia, Leptospira, Treponema
Large group of heterogeneous of long, very slender & flexible, corkscrew-like G- bacteria which are hard to stain or grow.
Darkfield microscopy usually needed to visualize
What are the symptoms of Treponema pertenue & T. carateum
Chronic skin lesions in the tropics, usually - non-vernereal, assoc c/ insects & poor hygience
T. pertenue causes yaws and T. carateum causes pinta
Causative agent of Syphillis?
Treponema pallidum
Describe the stages of syphilis
Primary - hard chancre, highly infections
Secondary - rash, highly infections
Latent - Test positive by not infectious with no signs of disease
Tertiary - CV, CNS lesions, no longer infections
Also - congenital syphilis if mom had active disease
How is syphilis diagnosed?
Can't be cultured, so must test for Abs against both treponemal and non-treponemal Ags in serum
Screening tests use cardiolipin (RPR VDRL tests)
How is Syphilis treated? What is the other bacteria that can always be treated with the same drugs as Syphilis
Penicillin is always good against both syphilis and Strep A
What is another kind of spiral bacteria besides spirochetes?
Spirilla - G+ and rigid cell call (unlike spirochetes)
Name pathogenic species of Borrelia & their associated diseases
B. recurrentis - louse-born relapsing fever (due to changing Ags of the bug)
B. hermsii - tick born relapsing fever
B. burgdorferi - Lyme disease (skin lesions & arthritis
B. vincentii - Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis (ANUG)
Describe Leptospira interrogans transmission & infection
Has 3 pathogenic serotypes, each assoc. with different animal
Transmission via animal urine
Causes systemic "flu-like" infection that will localize in kidney
Hemorrhage, jaundice and azotemia leading to death in serious cases
What is the treatment for spirochete infections?
Penicillin is effective against most spirochetes.
How are the 3 genera of pathogenic spirochetes differentiated?
Borrelia is thicker & longer, coarse irrecular coils, many axial fibers, microaerophili
Treponema have tight regular coils with 6-10 axial fibrils- microaerophilic
Leptospira are hooked at one or both ends and has only 2 axial fibrils
What do RPR and VDRL mean?
Rapid Plasma Reagin - a macroscopic rapid test of anti-cardiolipin antibody on cardboard
Venereal Disease Research Lab - older, microsopic test for same antibodies. Gold standard test
What are FTA and FTA-ABS?
Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody - an indirect fluorscents test for Ab
FTA-ABS - an FTA test where "normal flora" treponemes Abs are adsorbed to eliminate false positive
What happens to treponemal & non-treponemal antibodies post treatment?
The non-treponemal antibodies will decline over months will successful treatment
Treponemal antibodies will last years and years
Another name for anti-cardiolipin antibody?
Reagin - be careful because it's the same term used for IgE in allergies (though the two things aren't related)
What can cause false positive test for syphillis?
The VDRL tests for Reagin and can be positive due to drug addition, connective tissue disease, hep, diabetes, immune disorders?
Describe lyme disease - causative agent, incubation, symptoms, ets
B. burgdorferi transmitted via ticks.
3-30 day incubations
Skin lesions with red flat border & central clearin, flu-like symptom.
W/out tx, neurologic & cardiac symptoms & arthritis
Diagnose via serum Abs
Describe ANUG
Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis - oral infection with inflammation/necrosis of gingiva. Assoc with B. vincentii & fusiform G- anaerobic bacteria
Called Trench mouth
Describe Leptospira Dx & Tx
Dx -after 1st week, urine (dark field or via Fletcher's culture) or serum Ab
Tx - Antibiotics in early stages
10-40% mortality if jaundice, 0% if none