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38 Cards in this Set

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What is the generation time for M. tuberculosis?
at least 12 hours
What bacterial family has waxy cell walls?
Mycobacteria
Why is atb. tx difficult with Mycobacteria?
the waxy cell wall prevents penetration by some atb.
What dye is used for Mycobacteria?
carbol fuchsin(ruby red stain) speciman is heated over steam to obtain stain entry....
Mycobacteria dye contiued...
then destained with an acid fortified decolorizer. Counter stained with a blue dye.(methylene blue)
After finalizing staining process, Mycobacterium will look like.....
the Mycobacterium will appear red and the other cells(human) will be blue.
How can diag. TB be sped up?
Tine test and sputum samples.
Who are at risk for TB
poor, prisoners and AIDS patients.
Characteristics of the Diphtheria bacterium
gram-pos.
club shaped bacillus
cells stick together- chinese character appearence
Causative agent for Diphtheria
diphtherotoxin(Corynebacterium diphtheriae)
Diphtheria affects what part of the body?
the heart, nervous system and cause death.
How does diphtheria affect the body?
a pseudomembrane forms in the pharynx(tonsils)and can cause asphyxiation.
What could happen if the membrane is removed?
the pt. could bleed to death
How can diphtheria be prevented?
Vaccine-a toxoid of diphtherotoxin
What are the characteristics of Pertussis?
gram-pos
coccobacillus
What is the causative agent for Pertussis?
Bordetella pertussis
What other name is pertussis known by?
whooping cough.
What age group is mainly affected by pertussis?
Children
What is a classic symptom for pertussis?
whoop sounding cough, labored breathing, subconjunctival hemorrhaging due to cough
Why is pertussis still a threat?
Parents are not vaccinating the children
Discribe the current pertussis vaccine.
fimbriae, toxoid, capsule and hemagglutinin factor.
Name the vaccines for diphtheria and pertussis.
Dpt-diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus. acellular
What vaccine is used for all people and name the one used for adults only
DaPT--all people
daPT--modified--adults
What are the characterisitics for Streptococcal Dieases?
gram-pos, spheres(cocci)in chains(strepto) from one to many cells, hemolytic reactions help differentiate
What is genera;;y present in the Streptoccoci cell envelope?
a C carbohydrate layer, to which humans produce Abs(antibodies)
Rebecca Lancefield developed what?
a system of classification of the C carbohydrates--group A, group B and so on
Describe the 2nd method of grouping.
based on hemolytic reaction of bacteria on blood agar.
Completely clear zone of hemolysis, is called what?
B-hemolytic
a-hemolysis(incomplete hemolysis or a breakdown of globin to a greenish product)are
a-hemolyic Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is also known as
viridans streptococci
Lack of hemolysis is called...?
y-hemolysis(a misnomer since there is no hemolysis)
Steptococci do not secrete..?
catalase.
Catalase is useful in what way?
helps to diffentiate Streptococci from Staphylococcus
Common site for streptococcal diseases are..
the throat, oral cavities, vagina, and intestines
Characteristics of Acute Pharyngitis.
B-hemolytic, group A strep(C-carbohydrate type), pyogenic
Streptococcus pyogenes is identical to..?
group A strep--used in clinical settings.
S. pyogenes causes what?
acute pharyngitis, or strep throat.
C-carbohydrate prevents what?
lysozyme entry, thus PG degradation.