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47 Cards in this Set

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useful in treating penicillinase resistant bacteria
methicillin
beta-lactam/penicillin
penicillin + Beta-lactam inhibitor
augmentin
beta-lactam/penicillin
these drugs are given if patient has penicillin allergies & is resistant to beta-lactamases
carbapenems & monobactams
beta-lactam
inhibits formation of glycan chains; doesn't cross lipid membrane therefore gram (+) only
vancomycin
beta-lactam
inteferes with peptidoglycan precursors
bacitracin
beta-lactam
effective against enterobacteriaceae
monobactams
beta-lactam
example of broad spec cephalosporin
cephalexin
beta-lactam/1st generation ceph
this class of drugs have chemical structures that make them resistant to inactivation by certain β-lactamases

Tend to have low affinity to penicillin-binding proteins of Gram (+) bacteria
cephalosporins
beta-lactam
this class:
Irreversibly binds to 30S ribosomal subunit
Causes distortion and malfunction of ribosome
Blocks initiation translation
Causes misreading of mRNA
aminoglycosides
what are possible side effects of aminoglycosides?
nephrotoxicity & ototoxicity
gentamycin is an example of _______ (class)
aminoglycosides
streptomycin is an example of ____ (class)
aminoglycosides
tobramycin is an example of _____ (class)
aminoglycosides
what class
Reversibly bind 30S ribosomal subunit
Blocks attachment of tRNA to ribosome
Prevents continuation of protein synthesis
tetracyclines
Tetracyclines are (broad/narrow) spectrum antibiotics.
broad
What class is used as the drug of choice for patients with penicillin allergies?
Macrolids
This class
Reversibly binds to 50S ribosome
Prevents continuation of protein synthesis
Macrolids
This class is effective against variety of Gram (+) organisms and those responsible for atypical pneumonia
Macrolids
Erythromycin
Macrolid
clarithromycin
Macrolid
azithromycin
macrolid
This drug binds to 50S ribosomal subunit & Prevents peptide bonds from forming and blocking proteins synthesis

Used as last resort for life-treatening infections
chloramphenicol
This class
Binds to 50S ribosomal subunit
Prevents continuation of protein synthesis
Inhibits variety of Gram (+) and Gram (-) organisms
Useful in treating infections from intestinal perforation (Especially effective against Bacterioides fragilis and Clostridium difficile)
Lincosamides
Clindamycin
Lincosamides
Newer class of antimicrobials that bind 50S ribosomal subunit & interfere with initiation of proteins synthesis
Oxazolidinones
Bonds to two different sites on 50S ribosomal subunit
Streptogramins
Synergistic combination of quinupristin and dalfopristin
Synercid
This class
Effective against variety of Gram (+) bacteria
Especially those resistant to β-lactams and vancomycin
Streptogramins
inhibit topoisomerase gyrase
broad spec
Fluoroquinolones
ciprofloxacin
Fluoroquinolone
ofloxacin
Fluoroquinolone
rifampin
Rifamycin
Block prokaryotic RNA polymerase
Block initiation of transcription
Rifamycins
used to treat mostly gram (+), Mycobacterium TB, Hansen's disease & those exposed to N. meningitis
Rifampin
Rifamycins
inhibit growth by competitive inhibition of PABA

broad spec
sulfonamides
PABA is an enzyme required for ____
folic acid synthesis
the resistance for both sulfonamides & _____ are usually on the same plasmid
trimethoprim
1st aid skin ointment; binds to gram (-) membrane
polymixin B
1st line drugs used to treat Myco TB (list all 5)
Think: (RIPES)
Rifampin
Isoniazid
Pyrazinamide
Ethambutol
Streptomycin
quantitative test used to determine minimum effective dose
MIC
qualitative test used to determine susceptibility of antibiotic; utilizes a zone of inhibition
Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion/ disc diffusion test
qualitative test that uses a strip with a gradient concentration of the antibiotic; utilizes a zone of inhibition
E-test
these two drugs block uncoating of flu virus
amantadine, rimantadine
this class of antivirals get phosphorylated & then incorporated during transcription causing termination
nucleoside analogs
Zidovudine (AZT)
nucleoside analogs
didanosine (dal)
nucleoside analogs
lamivudine (3TC)
nucleoside analogs