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84 Cards in this Set

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Mannitol-Salt
S. aureus ferments mannose turning indicator yellow. S. epi and S. saph remain pink
gm+ cocci in clusters, gamma hemolysis, sensitive to novobiocin
S. Epi
Gm+ cocci in chains, beta hemolysis, bacitracin sensitive
Strep Pyogenes
gm- tetrads
Neisseria sicca
MIC
Lowest concentration of the drug that inhibits growth of an organism. Measure effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent.
How does bacterial growth in MIC appear
turbid
MIC pro's
1. accurate
2. good for testing fastidious microbes
MIC con's
labor-intensive
What medium is used in Kirby-Bauer
Mueller-Hinton
What organisms is the rapid-test used for?
B-lactamase-mediated resistance:
S. aureus, N. gonorrhea, H.influenza, enterococcus, certain anerobic
What does rapid-test detect?
Presence of enzyme. No need for bacteria to grow
catalase +
catalase -
Staph +
Strep -
What causes beta hemolysis
Strep have streptolysin S and O which digest RBC
What causes alpha hemolysis
Reduction of Hb
What causes gamma hemolysis
Can't break down RBC
What bacteria appears green on BAP
alpha hemolysis: pneumococcus, viridans, some enterococci and GDS
What bacteria appears clear
beta hemolysis: S. aureus/GAS/GBS
non-hemolytic bacteria
Coag - Staph
Some enterococci
What test differentiates GAS from other b-hemolytic Strep
Bacitracin sensitive: GAS
GDS/enterococci from other Strep
Bile Esculin Hydrolysis.
PYR
PYR+ (pink): enterococci, GAS
PYR -: GDS
(used to distinguish enterococci from GDS)
Optochin
sensitive: s.pneumonia
resistant: viridans strep
Latex Agglutination Rapid Test
+ Lancefield Ag
Latex Agglutination
+ S. aureus (fibrinogen binds to coagulase and protein A)
Novobiocin
S. epi sensitive
S. saprophyticus resistant
What type of medium is used for Novobiocin sensitivity
Mueller Hinton
grow in chains or as diplococci
catalase -
Strep
Beta hemolytic
bacitracin sensitive
PYR+
GAS
Acute pharyngitis with rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis
GAS
B-hemolysis
bacitracin resistant
camp+
hippurate hydrolysis
GBS (S. agalactiae)
Neonatal bacteremia, meningitis, pneumonia, endocarditis, arthritis, osteomyelitis
GBS
alpha hemolysis
optochin sensitive
bile soluble
pneumococcus
Lobar pneumonia, endocarditis, pericarditis, meningitis, arthritis, mastoiditis, eye infecitons
pneumococcus
alpha-hemolytic
optochin resistant
Viridans
subacute bacterial endocarditis
viridans
brain and liver abscess
viridans strep
PYR-
esculin hydrolysis+
6.5% salt intolerant
starch hydrolysis+
S. bovis (GDS)
endocarditis, UTI, abdominal abscesses, soft tissue infection
S.bovis (GDS)
PYR+
Esculin hydrolysis+
6.5% salt tolerant
starch hydrolysis-
E.faecalis, E.faecium (Grp D enterococci)
Endocarditis, UTI, abdominal abscesses, soft tissue infection. VERY resistant to antibiotics
Grp D enterococci
coag+
mannitol+
non or betal hemolysis
S. aureus
Scaled skin syndrome
S. aureus
Coag-
mannitol-
novobiocin sensitive
S.epi
bacteremia or endocarditis b/c of catheters
S. epi
Coag-, mannitol-, novobiocin resistant
S.saprophyticus
#2 cause of UTIs in young women (after E.coli)
S.saprophyticus
Differential for acute pharyngitis
GAS, Group C and G strep, diptheria, Nisseria
Acid fast organisms
Mycobacteria, Nocardia (partially)
Why are some bacteria acid-fast
resistance to decolorization during staining b/c of high lipid cell-walls
What stains the walls of acid fast organisms
stain with carbol-fuchsin, counterstain with methylene blue
TB-like disease with GI symptoms
Mycobacterium avium intracellular
weakly gm positive, acid-fast beaded branching thin filaments
Nocardia (often confused with myobacteria)
club shaped rods, weakly gm+ and acid fast
Cornybacterium
chinese lettering
cornybacterium
pseudomembrane
cornybacterium
Club shaped rods, weakly gm- and acid-fast
cornybacterium
Loeffler's
cornybacterium
Potassium tellurite agar
cornybacterium
chinese letters
cornybacterium
pseudomembrane
diptheria caused by cornybacterium
Tx of diptheria
antitoxin and penicllin or erythromycin
selective agents in MacConkey Agar
crystal violet and bile salts suppres gm+ growth
differential agent in MacConkey Agar
Lactose. Commensals ferment lactose and will appear pink
API20E
IDs enterobacteraciae
What does Campy-BAC contain?
Blood and antibiotics. Isolates campylobacter at 42 degress
Oxidase+
Oxidase-
+ Non-enteric Rods: Vibrio, Pseudomonas, C.jejuni, Neisseria, moraxella
- enterics
Gm- rod, Lac -, diarrhea, vomitting
Salmonella
comma shaped
Campylobacter jejuni
nause, cramps, bloody diarrhea.
Stains red with carbolfuschin
oxidase+
C.jejuni
Chocolate agar
Neisseria
Haemophilus
MacConkey agar
Enterics
Lowenstein Jensen medium
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Thayer-Martin
Neisseria
Regan-Lowe
Bordella pertusis
Carbohydrate Utilization Test
differentiate Neisseria species
metabolizes glucose (tube turns yellow)
metabolizes glu and maltose
no metabolism
N. gonorrhea
N. meningitidis
Moraxella
requres X factor (hemin) and V (NAD)
requires V only
XV - H.influenza
V - H. parainfluenza
Trypticase Soy Agar
Sugar utilization tests (differentiate Neisseria species)
gm- intracellular diploccoci
ferments glucose
grows on thayer-martin
oxidase+
N. gonorrhoeae
Gm- intracellular diploccoci
ferments glucose and maltose
N.meningitidis
grows on normal BAP, oxidase+, Dnase+, beta-lactamase+ does not utilize sugars
Moraxella
gm- coccobacilli
requires XV or chocolate agar
latex agglutination for ag
H.influenza
MCC of meningitis in kids 6mo-2yrs
H.influenza (gm-)
India ink
Encapsulated yeast will appear clear