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5 Cards in this Set

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What are the causitive agents of malaria?
Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae.
Life cycle of Plasmodium sp.
Plasmodium is tramitted to humans via mosquito; goes to liver for first stage of life cycle. Schizonts form in liver, rupture and infect bloodstream. Second phase is blood stage; Schizonts form in blood and eventually undergo sexual reproduction which are ingested by mosquito and the cycle continues.
Clinical features of malaria
Untreated malaria can be fatal in 24 hours. The most frequent symptoms are fever and chills which may be accompanied by headache, myalgia, anthralgia, weakness, vomiting, and diarrhea. Other clinical features include splenomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypoglycemia, pulmonary or renal dyfunction, and neurological changes.
P. falciparum can progress to fatal forms w/ CNS involvement, acute renal failure, severe anemia, or adult respiratory distress syndrome.
P. vivax malaria splenomegaly.
P. malariae complications can include nephrotic syndrome.
Treatment of malaria
Prophylaxis: Chloroquine phosphate (mefloquine or doxycycline in resistant regions)
Acute attack: Chloroquine phosphate or quinidine gluconate (combo therapy including quinidine or quinine and doxycycline or primethamine-sulfadoxine)
Radical cure: Primoquine phosphate
Chloroquine
Effective tx against asexual erythrocytic forms of malaria. Accumulates in food vacuole of parasite; inhibition of heme polymerization. Free radical formation and cell destruction. Resistance is widespread due to decreased uptake into food vacuole.
SE include dizziness, headache, visual changes; usually occur when given IV too quickly.
CONTRAINDICATED with glucose 6-phosphate deficiency.