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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is connective tissue
relatively few cells in an ECM formed of fluid, ground substance, and various fibers
what is mesenchyme?
pluripotent precursor to adult CT

derived mainly from mesoderm, but some from neural crest tissue

consists of stellate pluripotent cells, reticular fibers, and ground substance
what is mucous connective tissue
found only in umbilical cord and parts of embryo
Wharton's Jelly

few fibers (collagen Type I and III) in soft jelly-like mtx
large stellate fibroblasts
what are some specialized forms of CT?
adipose, blood, bone, cartilage, hematopoietic, lymphatic
what are the functions of CT?
structural support
medium for exchange
storage of energy
store potential energy
thermal regulation
controlled motion
what are the components of ECM?
ground substance
what is collagen?"
most common fibrous material
high tensile strength

25 known types
what is collagen fibers made of?
tropocollagen is basic molecule w/ 3 alpha chains in a helix

fibrils are aggregates of tropocollagen linked head to tail, side by side

fibrils form fibers which form bundles
what is tropocollagen?
basic collagen molecule of 3 alpha chains in a helix

where x and y are usu proline, hydroxyproline, and hydroxylysine
what is Type I collagen?
in dermis, ligament, tendon, organ capsules, bone, cornea, and teeth
30% of protein in body

produced by fibroblasts

ACIDOPHILIC; and blue/green on trichrome or Azan stains

Striated fibrils ->form fibers
what is Type II collagen?
in hyaline and elastic cartilage and in vitreous body of eye

produced by chondrocytes when in cartilage

usu thin fibrils, not fibers
what is Type III collagen?
reticular fibers

fibrils from thin fibers in delicate network

PAS positive
agyrophilic (stains w/ silver)

produced by fibroblasts in loose CT

in stroma of certain glands, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lung
what is Type IV collagen?
make up lamina densa of basal lamina

FORMS A MAT, not fibers

propeptides not removed from procollagen..cannot make fibrils
what is Type VII collagen?
in lamina reticularis

forms anchoring fibrils, which are bound to lamina densa and type I and III collage fibrils in CT
what are elastic fibers?
for recoil

core of elastin surrounded by microfibrils of glycoprotein fibrillin

in loose CT: long, slender, with branching networks

in elastic ligaments: coarse bundles

in tunica media of large arteries: fenestrated sheets
how do you stain elastic fibers?
unstained: look glassy if thick

special stains: resorcin-fuchsin, aldehyde-fuchsin, and Verhoeff's picro-ponceau color elastin
what is ground substance made up of?
hydrated mix of GAGs, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins
what are glucosaminoglycans?
long,unbranched polysaccharides w/ disacc repeat unit

<300 repeats (except for hyaluronic acid)
what are proteoglycans?
GAGs (except hyaluronic acid) covalently bound to core protein

form test tube brush

HIGHLY BASOPHILIC b/c neg carboxyl and sulfate grps
what do proteoglycans do?
filters of macromolecules
attracts water...gel-like
bind to collagen and cross linke components of ECM
bind to signaling molecules and control their fxn
sometimes anchors cell to mtx
what is a proteoglycan aggregate?
when proteoglycans attach to hyaluronic acid

found in cartilage

link proteins reinforce noncovalent attachment of proteoglycans to hyal acid

form gel of ground substance
what are adhesive glycoproteins?
glycoproteins in ground substand that bind to cell mbns and/or ECM
the binding domains of adhesive glycoproteins can bind to?
integrins (transmbn proteins linked to cytoskel; like cell to mtx)
collagen fibers
what are some glycoproteins with cell adhesion properties?
plasma fibronectin
laminin (only in lamna lucida of basal lamina)
what are the two types of cells in CT?
what are the fixed cells of the CT?
adipose cells
mast cells
what are the transient cells of the CT?
plasma cells
what do fibroblasts do?
synthesize almost all components of ECM

active fibroblasts - spindle shaped, slightly basophilic cyto, ovoid nucleus

inactive fibroblasts - less RER, less basophilic, pink cyto
where are adipose cells found?
in loose CT
what is white adipose tissue?
unilocular adipocytes

signet ring

cyto and nuclei pushed to side
what is brown fat?
multilocular adipocytes

organized into lobules, looks glandular

more vascular than white fat; blood + cytochromes in mit give brown color

in fetus and young children: neck, interscapular region, next to major bl vessels

abundance of mit..generate HEAT
what are myofibroblasts?
look like fibroblasts on LM

have RER and golgi, and lack basal lamina (like fib)

but have bundles of actin filaments and dense bodies (like smooth musc cells)
what are macrophages and what do they do?
derived from monocytes

large, irregularly shaped

phagocytize and do intracell breakdown

also immune response, produce cytokines, phago old RBCs, help develop RBCs, produce enz to turn over ECM
what are types of phagocytic cells found in the body?
histiocytes - in loose CT
Kupffer cells - liver
Dust cells/alveolar macrophage - lung
Osteoclasts - bone
Langerhands cells - epidermis
Microglia - brain
what are mast cells?
have secretory granules of histamine and heparin for inflammatory response

1st exposure to antigen: IgE isbound to receptors on mast cell plasmalemma

2nd exposure: mast cell granule content released, and synth/release leukotrienes
what do mast cells look like?
have granules that can be seen with special stain (i.e. toluidine blue -> metachromasia)

resemble basophils and secrete similar products
what are some reactions mediated by mast cells?
hay fever
what are plasma cells?
large ovoid cells derived from B lymphocytes

manufacture antibodies
what do plasma cells look like?
basophilic cytoplasm w/ pale area near eccentric nucleus

cart wheel nucleus

basophilia = RER; pale = golgi
what are leukocytes?
pass through capillary walls by migrating b/w endothelial cells (diapedesis) into CT

neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes,and monocytes
what is loose CT?
abundant ground substance, few fibers, scattered cells

papillary layer of dermis, superficial fascia, mesothelial cells, in mucous mbns, and surrounding blood vessels and periph nerves
what is lamina propria?
loose CT just deep to epith and basement mbn(e.g. intestine, trachea)

more cellular
what is dense irregular CT?
many collagen bundles in irregular direction

less ground substance and less cells than loose CT

in reticular layer of dermis, capsules of organs, and sheaths of tendons and nerves
what is dense regular CT?
parallel bundles of collagen fibers; tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses, and stroma of cornea
what is dense regular elastic tissue?
little collagen, lots of elastin in bundles

in ligamenta flava, ligaments, fenestrated sheets in tunica media of large arteries
how is inflammation classified?
dolor - pain
calor - heat
rubor - color
tumor - swelling
what is scurvy?
vit C deficiency

vit C needed to convert proline to hydroxyproline, which is essential in collagen

poor wound healing, tooth loss
what is ehlers-danlos syndrome?
heritable mutation in lysyl hydroxylase, causing abnormal tropocollagen crosslinks

joint laxity, skin extensibility, tissue fragility
what is Marfan's Syndrome?
Mutation in fibrillin gene, causing abnormal elastic fibers

tall flexible...large heart..

Abe lincoln