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148 Cards in this Set

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What is biotechnology?
is the use of microorganisms, cells or cell components to make a product
NAME
is the use of mircoorganisms , cells or cell compants to make a product
biotechnology
What are recombinant DNA technology?
are techniques used to deliberately remove genetic material from one organism and combine it w gentic material of a different organism
NAME
are techniques used to diliberertaley remove genetic material from one orgaganism and combine it with genteic material of the different organism
recombinant DNA technology
What is genetic engineering do?
inserts genes into cells
NAME
inserts genes into the cells
genetic engineering
Give a overview of the process of genetic engineering? (5)
(1)isolate the desired gene (2)insert the gene into the vector (3)transfer the vector to a bacterial cell (4) clones form through binary fission (5) the harvest the genes (genotype) or isolate the gene product (phenotype)
NAME
process includes
(1)isolating the desired genes (2)insert the genes into the vector (3) transfer the vector to the bacterial cell (4) the vector grows forming clones through binary fission (5)then harvest the gene (genotype) or isolate a gene product (phenotype)
Genetic engineering
What are stone-washed jeans? (how/the microbe does to make stonewashed jeans)
are cellulases prodcued by a fungus are used to digest some of the cellulose in cotton to make a softer denium
NAME
are cellulases produced by a fungus are used to digest some of the cellulose in cotton making a softer denium
Stone Washed
Bacteria can produce both (1) and (2).
(1)cotton (2)polyester
What is the old way polyester used to be made?
from protroelum producing toxix waste
NAME
used to be made from proteleum, but isnt no longer bc it procuces lots of toxic waster
polyester
How is polyester made today? (the environmentally friendly kind)
from genetically modified bacterium that can be grown on agricultural waste which is biodegradable
NAME
cane be made from genetically modified bacterium that can be grown on aricultural waste which is biodegradable
polyester
(1) production prodcues wastes that explodes in contact w air
Indigo
Indigo production produces wastest that (1)
explodes in contact with air
What have two gene companies done to make ensure that indigo is produced safely with out explosion?(2)
by using microgoranisms (1) one of which is genectically-altered blue strain of E coli and (2)the other was a muatated fungus
Over (1) can make plastic
over 25 types of bacteria
What is alernative biodradable way to prodcue plastic other then from petroleum?
by being made from over 25 different types of bacteria
NAME
can be made from 25 differenty types of bacteria instead of perroleum
Plastic
NAME
the source of DNA
the genome
The genome is the source of (1)
DNA
Where is DNA found in prok?
nucleiod
NAME TYPE OF CELL
DNA is found in the nucleiod
prok
NAME TYPE OF CELL
DNA is found in the nucleus
Euk
Where is the DNA found in euk?
nucleus
NAME TYPE OF Organism
DNA is found in the plasmids (2)
bacteria and fungi
Where is DNA found in bacteria and fungi?
the plasmids
How do we get DNA out of the cell?
by breaking open the cell and cuting up the DNA
T or F
DNA synthesis machines can make 120+ nucleotides sequences
True
(1) can make 120+ nucleotides sequences
DNA synthesis machines
What are gene libraries?
are fragments of DNA that are stored in plasmids or phages
NAME
are fragments of DNA that are stored in plasmids or phages
gene libraries
T or F
cDNA is not free of introns
False
What does cDNA stand for?
complementary DNA
How cna cDNA be made?
from mRNA, tRNA, or rRNA using reverse transciptase in retroviruses
NAME
can form from mRNA, tRNA, or rRNA using reverse trnasciptase in retroviruses
cDNA
reverse transcriptase ocurs in (1)
retroviruses
What is reverse transciptase?
conversion of RNA into DNA in retroviruses
NAME
is the conversion of RNA into DNA in retro viruses
reverse transciptase
Can more gene libraries be made if needed?
yes
What does PCR stand for?
polymerase chain reaction
What is PCR?
a method for creating a large number of DNA or RNA copies
NAME
is a method for creating a large number of DNA or RNA copies
PCR
NAME
rapidly increases the amount of DNA or RNA in sample
PCR
the thermal cycle is also refered to as the (1)
PCR machine
The PCR machine is also called the (1)
the thermal cycle
NAME
the thermal cycle regulates cyclic temp changes
the thermal cycle
The thermal cycle regulates (1)
the cyclic temp changes
What are some techinques used in Genetic engineering? (4)
(1)DNA fingerprinting (2)Southern Blot (3)inserting foreign DNA into cells (4) Selecting a clone and making an end product
(DNA fingerprinting) How are the DNA fragments separted?
electrophoresis
During DNA fingerprinting, (1) separtes DNA fragments
electrophoresis
What is electrophoresis?
separates DNA fragements during DNA fingerprinting process
During DNA finferprinting process, samples are subject to (1)
electric currents
During DNA fingerprinting, when the sample are subject to electric current, what happens to the DNA?
bc it is negativly charged, DNA migrates towards the postive pole
What happens in the final step of DNA fingerprinting?
RFLP's separated by electrophoresis are compared to a pattern
NAME
RFLP"S are separated by electrophoresis are compared to a pattern ("ladder")
DNA fingerprinting
NAME some of the steps during DNA fingerprinting (3)?
(1)DNA fragments produced by restriction enzymes are separated by electrophoresis (2)Samples are subject to electic currents (3) RFLP's separated by electrophoresis are compared to a pattern ("ladder")
What is southern Blot?
is a hybridization technique used to sequence DNA
NAME
is a hybridization technique used to sequence DNA
Southern Blot
A DNA fingerprint is made through the use of (1)
electrophoresis
A (1) is made through the use of electrophoresis
DNA fingerprinting
RFLPS are transferred to a (1) by (2)
(1)speacil filter (2) blotting
(1) are transferred to a speacil filter by blotting
RFLPS
during Southern blotting, DNA fragments are (1) whereve it (2).
(1)incubated w/a radioactivaely labeled DNA probe (2)hydbridzes it will bind
During (1), DNA fragment are incubated w/a radioactively labeled DNA probe (wherever it hybridizes it will bind)
Southern Blotting
During southern blotting,
DNA fragments are deveolped w (1) and observed for a band to id (2)
(1)X-ray film (2) RFLP
What are five ways to insert foregign DNA into cells?
(1)transformation (2) Electroporation (3) Protoplast fusion (4) gene guns (5) Microinjection
What is transformation?
is the inducing of cells to make foriegn DNA in same cases by making them competant able to absorb DNA
NAME
is the inducing of cells to make foriegn DNA in some cases by making them competant able to absorb DNA
transformation
(1) was used in the cloning of the lamb Dolly
Electroporation
Electroporation was used in the (1)
cloning of the lamb Dolly
What is electroporation?
brief electrical pulse used to produce temporary pores in the cell membrane
NAME
is the brief use of electrical pulses to produce temporary pores in the cell membrane
electroporation
How is protoplast fusion used to insert forgien DNA into cells?
cell wall if present is removed w enzymes and the protoplasts are induced to fuse using polythylene glycol
NAME
insertation of the DNA into the cells is made possible when cell wall if present is removed w enzymes and the protoplasts are induced to fuse using phothylene glycol
protoplast fusion
How are gene guns used to insert forgien DNA into Cells?
small shotguns shoot genes through cell walls of plants with mintue tungsten or gold bullets
NAME
small shotguns shoot genes through cell walls of plants with minute tungsten or gold bullets so that forgien DNA can be inserted into cells
gene guns
How is mircoinjection used to inert forgien DNA into the cell?
a micropipette is used to puncture the cell membrane and inject DNA into the cell
NAME
a micropipette is used to puncture the cell membrane and inject forgien DNA into the cell
microinjection
What are the six steps known for selecting a clone and making a end product?
(1)isolate the desired gene and plasmid (2)cut both w the same restriction enzyme (3)the sticky ends will join by Hydrogen bonding through base pairing (4) Liagase is used to seal the ends rejoining the sugar-phosphate backbone (5) the plasmid is absorbed by the cell through transformation (6)transformed cells are selected on a medium containing ampicillin
NAME
is used to seal the ends rejoining the sugar-phosphate backbone
ligase
During the process for selecting a clone and making the end product, how do the sticky ends join together?
by hydrogen bonding through base pairing
What are some theraepytic applications for genetic engineering? (4)
(1)horomones (2)immune treatments (3)subunit vaccinces such as Hepatitis B and HIV (4)gene therapy
NAME
was orginally from animals and some people had allergic reactions
insulin
Where was insulin origanlly from?
animals
NAME
orginal source was from human cadavers
growth hormones
Where did we orginally get growth horomones from?
human cadavers
Where did we get the horomone somatostatin from?
500,000 sheep brains
NAME
is a horomone in which comes from 500,000 sheep brains
Somatostain
What is genome sequencing ?
is determining the order of nucleotides in DNA
NAME
is determining the order of nucleotides in DNA
genome sequencing
What is random shot gun sequencing?
when small pieces of a genome are sequenced and then all those sequences are assembled using a computer
NAME
is when smallpieces of a genome are sequenced and then all those sequences are assembled using a computer
random shot gun sequencing
What is bioinformatics?
is understanding the gene function through computer assistance called GeneBank
NAME
is understanding the gene function through computer assistance called GeneBank
bioinformatics
What is proteomics?
is determining all the protiens expressed in a cell
NAME
is determining all the protiends expressed in a cell
proteomics
What are two issues (Ethical) involving genetic enginnering?
(1)food safety (2)cloning such as Molly and DOlly
Describe; how Dolly was clonged? (4)
(1)cells were taken from a Finn Doreset and placed in a culture w very little nutirents (starving the cells which stopped cell division) (2)an unfertilized egg from a Scottish Blackfare ewe /only made up of cytoplasm (no nucleus) (3)the udder cell w/ inactive genes and the modifed egg were placed next to each other and give 2 ectric pulses to fuse the eggs and start cell division (4)the embyro was planted into the utereus and th mother gave birth to Dolly
(1) gave birth to DOlly alamb gentically indentical to the orginal donor-the (2)
(1)Blackface ewe (2)Finn Dorset
the blackface ewe gave birth to (1), a lamb gentically indentical to the orginal donor the finn dorset
Dolly
When they created Dolly, what two types of cells were used?
(1)one that had been starved to stop cell division (low nutrients)~aka a udder cell w inactive genes (2)a unfertilzed egg that had the nucleus removed leaving only the cytoplasm
When they created Dolly, the udder cell with the inactive genes, the udder cell with inactive genes and the modifed egg w no nucleus were placed next each other and given a (1)
(1)electrical pulse twice
When they created Dolly,(1) and (2) were placed next each other and given a given a electrical pulse twice
(!)the udder cell with inactive genes (2)the modifed egg w no nucleus
When the created Dolly, what was the point of using the electrcal pulse the first time on the udder cell with inactive genes and the modifed egg w no nucleus? and the secound time?
(1)fuse the both the cell and the nucleus (2) start cell division
NAME
visible experession of genes
phenotype
NAME
large base sequeuence moves gentic material btwn bacterial chromosomes
transposons
NAME
enzyme that does the unzipping of DNA
helicase
NAME
enzyme that seals or binding of covalent sugar and phosphate bonds in DNA backbone
ligase
NAME
information encoded in RNA used to synethsize specfic protiens
translation
NAME
one conserved strain and one new strain
semi-conservative
NAME
In Euk gene, the regions where DNA is expressed
exon
NAME
langauge of mRNA in the form of (1)
codon
NAME
transfer of a naked DNA fragment
transformation
NAME
enzyme that cuts the sugar phosphate bone
restriction endonuclease
NAME
gentic info in DNA copied into complementary base sequence of RNA
transcription
What are the three main took kits for gentic engeriering?
(1)restriction enzymes (2)ligase (3)reverse transcrptase
What are restriction enzymes?
are enzymes that recoginize and cleave (cut) DNA at site of palindromic sequence
NAME
are enzymes taht recoginze and cleave (cut) DNA at site of palindromic sequences
restriction enzymes
T or F
restriction enzymes can read forward or backward
True
Restriction enzymes cutting patterns can produce staggered tails called (1)
sticky ends that are joinged by H bonding
What does synthetic mean?
artifical
Why is the PCr machine called the thermal cycler?
bc it works at 94 C
What are the three cycles of the PCR machine?
(1)melt (2)anneal (3) Extend
For PCR, enzymes need to be (1)
thermal resistant
The PCR machine will only (1)
reprodcue fragments of DNA
How many cycles does it take for the PCR machine to work?
30
What are the benfits of the PCR machine?
sesntivity
T or F
DNA fingerprinting can be used to idtenfy gentic diseases
true
What are function of the PCR machine? (5)
(1)clone DNA for recombination (2)amplify DNA to decetable values (3)sequence DNA (4)diagnose gentice disease (5)Direct pathogens
Give some ex(s) of end products (4)
(1)E coli (2)yeast (3) mammalian cell (4) plant cells
What is insulin's function?
functions in the break down of energy
NAME
functions in the break down of energy
insulin
What is the function of interferon?
helps with the immune system
NAME
helps with the immune system
inferferons
What are subunit vaccines?
made up of protens
NAME
are vaccines made up of protiens
subunit vaccines
(1) may be the 1st vaccine to fight against HIV
subunit vaccanines
Subunit vaccacines may help fight against (1) and (2)
(1)Hepatitis B (2)possibly HIV
What are some Safety Issues and Ethics of gentic enginereering? (3)
(1)avoid accidental release (2)Gentically modified crops must be safe for consumption and for their environment (3)who will have acess to an individuals gentic info
Bioengeering in plants is made possbile through (1)
Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens
(1) can turn off the expression of a target gene such as tamtato ripening
Anti-sense DNA technology
Anti-Sense refers to the (1)
negative DNA
Anti-sense DNA technology can (1)
can turn off a target gene such as tomtato ripening
What are transgenic animals?
animals altered to produce medically useful product in milk
NAME
are animsal altered to produce medically uself products in milk
transgenic animals